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Today in 1399, Henry of Bolingbroke, grandson of Edward III was declared King of England following the overthrow of his cousin, Richard II, in what was effectively the beginning of the Wars of the Roses. Henry was the first of the Lancastrian Kings, and would rule until age 45, when he passed from a multitude of illnesses, leaving England in the hands of his militarily capable son, also named Henry. 
In birthdays today, our first belongs to Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Queen of Prussia and first German Empress in 1811. She was the consort of Wilhelm I, the first Emperor, and oddly enough, grandmother to the last German Emperor, Wilhelm II.
And in 1898 today, Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois was born in Algeria to Prince Louis II of Monaco and his mistress, Marie Juliette Louvet, a cabaret singer. The laws in Monaco were changed, declaring Charlotte legitimate and making her heir to the crown. However, she renounced her claim before he father died, when her son, the future Rainier III was of age.
And one death of note today. Louis IV, King of the Franks, died today in 954. He would be one of the last Carolingian kings of France, before the Capets took over in 987.
Have a great one!!