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Today in 1740, Maria Theresa would inherit the crown of the Austrian Empire after the death of her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. Although he had secured his daughter’s succession for most of his reign, her ascension did start the War of Austrian Succession. She was the only Queen Regnant of the Hapsburg Empire, and became Holy Roman Empress by marriage. Two of her sons would become Holy Roman Emperors, and one of her youngest daughters is the ill-fated Maria Antoinette.
Our first birthday today comes in 1677 to Stanislaw I of Poland. He was actually King twice, from 1704-1709 when he was deposed. He then gained the crown back in 1733 and ruled until 1736.
Next in 1780, we see the birth of Maria Paola Bonaparte, younger sister to Napoleon I of France. Napoleon would make her Duchess of Guastalla in Italy on her own, then marry her to an Italian Prince, making her Princess of Sulmona and Rossano.
And we have a not-so-dead royal birthday today. In 1934, the future Empresse Michiko of Japan was born in Tokyo. She is the wife of the current Emperor Akihito.
In addition to the death of Charles VI that we already mentioned, we also have a one other death. First in 460 CE, Byzantine Empress Aelia Eudocia died in Jerusalem. She had been banished and exiled there after her husband, Theodosius II accused her of an affair.