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Today in 1282, Pope Martin IV excommunicated Peter III of Aragon and called for a Crusade against him. Peter was the newly elected King of Sicily but the Pope wanted to keep the island under control of the French House of Anjou. The crusade would be an abysmal failure.
Next in 1492 today, Henry VII of England and Charles VIII of France ratified the Peace of Etaples. In the treaty, England recognized French control of Brittany, and France withdrew its support for the pretender to the English crown, Perkin Warbeck. Warbeck was claiming to be Richard Plantagent, Duke of York, one of the Princes in the Tower. The peace would continue through Henry’s reign.
In 1688, the Glorious Revolution was underway in England as William consildated his position in the south of England, particularly in Exeter. While William’s support grew daily by the gentry and nobles, James II and VII’s support waned and he would flee before the year closed.
Next in 1918, the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II as German Emperor and King of Prussia was formally announced after the country had risen in revolt. Wilhelm would live out his days in exile in the Netherlands.
Our first birthday comes in 1389 today, as Isabella of Valois was born to King Charles VI of France and Queen Isabeau. She was married to Richard II of England in 1396 and was Queen until his overthrow in 1399. Her sister Catherine would later be Queen of England as wife to Henry V.
In 1723 today, Princess Anna Amalia was born to Prussian King Frederick William I of Prussia and Queen Sophia Dorothea. She would go on to be an Abbess and notable composer and musician.
In 1799 Gustav, Crown Prince of Sweden was born to Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden and Queen Federica. Ten years later his father would be deposed and Gustav would live the rest of his days in Austria, but would be moved back to Sweden after his death.
Today in 1841, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales was born to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He would be the longest serving Prince of Wales, until his mother’s death in 1901 when he became Edward VII. While the current Prince Charles has surpassed him as the longest heir apparent, Edward is still the longest serving Prince of Wales.
Our first death of note today goes back to 1208, when Sancha of Castile, Queen of Aragon died. Sancha was the wife of Alfonso II of Aragon and mother to the future Peter II of Aragon and Holy Roman Empress, Constance of Aragon.
And in 1953, Ibn Saud, the first monarch of Saudi Arabia died in Taif at age 76. He had conquered almost all of the Arabian Peninsula to consolidate power and oversaw the discovery of oil in 1938. He had 45 sons, which all the subsequent Saudi Kings were numbered among.
Have a great day!!