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1292 – John Balliol was declared King of Scotland by Parliament. He had put forth his claim when the line of Alexander III died out. He would be crowned later in the month.

1558 – Elizabeth Tudor is living at a royal residence called Hatfield House when she was informed that her sister, Mary I of England had died. Elizabeth was 25 and would rule England until her death at age 69 and become one of the most famous monarchs in history.

1878 – King Umberto I of Italy is injured in an attempted assassination by an anarchist. His Prime Minister pushed away the assassin and was also injured. Umberto would be killed by an assassin later in 1900.

1922 – After the Sultanate was abolished in Turkey earlier in the month, the last Sultan, Mehmed VI was formally expelled from the country, and would live out his days on the Italian Riviera.

1729 – The future Queen consort of Sardinia, Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain was born to Phillip V. She would later marry Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and 3 of her sons would also become Kings.

1755 – Louis XVIII of France, younger brother to the ill-fated Louis XVI. He would spend the Revolution in exile, and return after the overthrow of Napoleon, becoming king in 1814.

1905 – Astrid of Sweden was born to Prince Carl in Stockholm. She would become Queen of the Belgians when she married Leopold III of Belgium. She would tragically died in a car accident at age 29 while pregnant with her fourth child. The current King, Albert II is her son.

1231 – Elisabeth of Hungary, daughter of Andrew II and Gertrude, died at age 24 in Germany. After her husband died, she spent her life and money, building hospitals and caring for the poor. She would later be canonized by the Catholic Church as a Saint in 1835.

1558 – Mary I of England died in London of influenza. She was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, his first wife. Mary had attempted to bring England back to the Catholic Church, and burned many Protestants for heresy, but was unsuccessful. Mary had no children from her marriage to the future Phillip II of Spain, and was succeeded by her half sister, Elizabeth.

1592 – John III of Sweden died in Stockholm. He became king after his half brother, Eric XIV was deposed 1568. He was said to be the “liberator of Sweden” from his insane brother.

1796 – Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia, died after having a stroke the previous day. Catherine would be a popular ruler with the people, despite being German by birth. She had built Russia into a world power, after she took power from her unfit for rule husband. She was a formidable woman, who was succeeded by her less than formidable son, Paul I.

1818 – Charlotte, Queen consort of the United Kingdom, died in bed with her son, the future George IV by her side. She had been the wife of George III and his legal guardian after his mental illness took over. However its believed she stopped visiting him in 1812 after his behavior became more erratic and violent.

1905 – The Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Adolphe, died in Hohenburg Castle. He had actually been protector of an organization that was instrumental in helping German immigrants move to Texas, and Nassau County there, is named in his honor.

Have a fabulous day!!