, , , , , , ,

1494 – As part of the Italian Wars, the armies of Charles VIII began their occupation of Florence, while on their way to Naples. Charles was intervening on behalf of the Pope Innocent VIII and the Duke of Milan, who were at odds with Ferdinand of Naples.

1730 – The future Frederick the Great of Prussia was pardoned by his father, Frederick William I. He had plotted against his father and planned to flee to England at one point. Even though he was pardoned, he was still stripped of his military ranks, and forced to begin his education in statesmanship and government.

1863 – The new Danish king, Christian IX, signed the November Constitution, just 3 days into his reign. Part of this document asserted that the regions of Schleswig and Holstein as part of Denmark. Prussia disputed this and it started a war in 1864, that Denmark ultimately lost.

1905 – Prince Carl of Denmark is formally offered the Crown of Norway after the union between Norway and Sweden was dissolved, and the people overwhelmingly voted for a referendum to retain the monarchy. He became Haakon VII of Norway, and was greatly respected by his people, especially for the leadership he gave during World War II.

1630 – Eleonora Gonzaga was born in Mantua Italy. She would later marry Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. She survived her husband by 29 years and gave him two daughters. She stayed in Vienna and fostered culture and the arts.

1772 – Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia is born to Prince August Ferdinand, and as a nephew to Frederick the Great. He was to become a known composer and music writer in his day, but was also an effective military leader, until his death in battle.

1774 – Wilhelmine of Prussia was born in Germany and would become Queen consort of the Netherlands when she married William I at age 17. She would have 4 surviving children, one later becoming William II of the Netherlands.

1154 – Adelaide of Maurienne died in her early 60’s as Dowager Queen of France. She was the wife of Louis VI and mother to Louis VII. She was an active Queen consort signing 45 royal charters during her time as Queen.

Have a great day!!