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1542 – The Battle of Solway Moss took place between England and Scotland. The groundwork for the fighting was laid when Henry VIII of England split from Rome and advised his nephew James V of Scotland to do the same. James refused and also refused to meet with Henry face to face. Henry was insulted and sent troops on raids which culminated in this Battle which was a victory for the English.

1273 – The ninth child and first son is born to Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile. He is named Alphonso, after his maternal uncle, Alphonso X of Castile. He would be heir to the English crown until his early death at age ten.

1655 – The future Charles XI of Sweden is born. He would become King at age 5 and was actually dyslexic. Despite his disability and that he was considered poorly educated, he turned out to be an effective military leader and administrator. He is commemorated on the 500 kronor bill in Sweden today.

1724 – Maria Amalia of Saxony is born in Dresden. She would later marry Charles III of Spain and thus become Queen consort of Spain, Naples and Sicily. She gave birth to thirteen children in which you can count a King of Spain, a King of Sicily and Naples, and a Holy Roman Empress.

1745 – Maria Amalia’s daughter, Maria Luisa was also born today. She was born while her parents ruled Naples and Sicily, before they came to rule Spain. Maria Luisa later married Leopold II of Austria and became Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire. Her son Francis, would become the last Holy Roman Emperor.

1741 – Ulrika Eleonora, Queen regnant of Sweden died at age 53 in Stockholm. She became Queen after the death of her brother, Charles XII in 1718. She married a Hessian Prince whom she abdicated in favor of in 1720. She then lived out her life as Queen consort of Sweden.

1960 – Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia died at age 78 living in exile in Canada. She was the younger sister of Nicholas II of Russia and escaped Russia during the Revolution, moving from Crimea, to Denmark, ending up in Canada. She is regarded as the last actual Grand Duchess of Russia.

Have a fabulous day!!