Danish Royalty, French Royalty, German Royalty, Greek Royalty, Italian monarchy/aristocracy, Polish Royalty, Portugese Royalty, Scottish Royalty, Spanish Royalty, The Crusades, The Normans, The Stuarts, The Tudors, Victorian era
1120 – The White Ship, a boat traveling between France and England carrying the only legitimate son of King Henry I, William Adelin, sinks in the channel killing everyone on board, except a butcher and one nobleman who told the story of what happened. The event led to a period in England known as The Anarchy, in which Henry’s daughter and nephew fought for the succession.
1177 – The Battle of Montisgard takes place between the armies of Saladin and Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. Even thought the Christians were heavily outnumbered, they were able to defeat and cause heavy losses to the Saracens.
1487 – Elizabeth of York is crowned Queen consort of England as the wife of Henry VII. She was the daughter of the late Edward IV, niece of Richard III, sister to the ill-fated Princes in the Tower, and mother to Henry VIII.
1795 – Stanislaw August Poniatowski abdicated the crown of Poland and became the last independant King of Poland. He had become king 1764 with the support of Catherine the Great of Russia. He is still a controversial figure in Polish history as he supported and implemented progressive reforms, but was unable to stop the fall of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1454 – Catherine Cornaro is born to Italian knight of the Holy Roman Empire Marco Cornaro and Fiorenza Crispo. She would go on to marry James II of Cyprus and thus become Queen consort. She was also the mother of the future James III of Cyprus.
1609 – Henrietta Maria is born in France as a daughter to Henry IV and Marie de Medici. She married Charles I of England, despite her being Catholic, and because the coronation rites were changed to the Anglican faith, she was never crowned Queen. She would survive Charles’ execution in France, and see her son, Charles II restored to the crown of England. Her other son, James, would also later become King.
1638 – Henrietta’s daughter in law, Catherine of Braganza is born in Portugal as a daughter of John IV. Again, she was unpopular because of her Catholic faith. She married Charles II of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1662, and would survive him, although they would not have any legitimate children. She is actually credited with bringing the custom of tea drinking to England from Portugal.
1868 – Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine is born to Princess Alice of the United Kingdom and Louis IV of Hesse. Ernest was therefore a grandchild of Queen Victoria and the older brother of the future Empress Alexandra of Russia.
1876 – Ernest’s wife, Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was born in Malta. She was also a grandchild of Queen Victoria, through her son Prince Alfred, and therefore was her husband’s first cousin. The would divorce in 1901 and she would remarry a Russia Grand Duke, Cyril Vladimirovich.
1034 – Malcolm II of Scotland died of unconfirmed causes after his thirty year reign. He had successfully fought and defended Scotland against Viking raiders and expanded Scottish territory.
1885 – Spanish King Alphonso XII died at age 27 of dysentery and was also suffering from tuberculosis. He reigned for only 9 years, but oversaw the return of Spain to a monarchy from the First Spainish Republic. His mother was Queen Isabella II of Spain and was succeeded by his son, Alphonso XIII.
1957 – Prince George of Greece and Denmark died at age 88 in France, where he mostly lived after the exile of his family. He once famously saved his cousin, the future Nicholas II of Russia from an attempted assassination in 1891, while they were traveling in Russia.
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