176 – Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius gives his son, Commodus, the title of Imperator and control of the Roman Legions as Supreme Commander. The following year, Marcus would make Commodus his Co-Emperor.
1295 – Elected representatives from Northern England are sent to Westminster for an audience with King Edward I in what’s come to be known as The Model Parliament. There were still no divisions between Lords and Commons, but it was instrumental in becoming more than just a body to agree on the King’s tax increases.
1807 – The Portuguese royal family boarded boats that were bound for Brazil. The Napoleonic army was marching through the Iberian peninsula, bent on partitioning Portugal. Queen Maria, the first Queen regnant of Portugal would die in Brazilian exile in 1816.
1635 – Francoise d’Aubigne, Marquise de Maintenon was born in Western France. She would eventually come to the court of Louis XIV of France, first as a lady in waiting, then staying as a Mistress of the King, eventually becoming is morganatic wife. She is known to be a positive influence on the King, and gave her patronage to schools for common girls.
1833 – Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge is born in Germany. She is the granddaughter of George III, through his youngest son, Prince Adolphus. She would become Duchess of Teck through marriage and her daughter, Victoria Mary would eventually marry the future George V of Great Britain and be known as Queen Mary. The current Queen Elizabeth II is her great-granddaughter.
511 – Clovis I, King of the Franks, dies while in his mid-forties. Clovis had successfully united the tribes of Gaul under his leadership and was also the first Christian King of Gaul, which we know as France today. He founded what we know as the Merovingian dynasty which ruled for another 200 years.
1198 – Constance, Queen of Sicily and Holy Roman Empress died at age 44. She was Holy Roman Empress as the wife of Henry VI, but was declared Queen of Sicily in her own right, by being the only legitmate child of Roger II of Sicily. Her son by Henry, Frederick II would start life as King of Sicily, being a young child when his father died, but would eventually also become Holy Roman Emperor.
1252 – Blanche of Castile died in France at age 64. She was the daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England. Blanche was a grandchild of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. In 1200, she married the future Louis VIII of France. Her eldest son became King Louis IX after his father’s death in 1226, and Eleanor would serve as his regent. Eleanor was an effective ruler, quelling rebellions and organizing treaties. She stepped down as regent when Louis came of age, but continued to act as his adviser. When Louis left on a Crusade, Eleanor would serve as his regent again, but she died while he was away. Her other children also a King of Sicily, and a Catholic Saint.
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