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915 – Berengar I of Italiy was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John X. Berengar mainly legitimised his rule through wars and his wives, and although it was undisputed for the most part, in the last two years of his life, his allies slowly abandoned him, eventually leading to his assassination in 924.

1368 – Charles VI of France is born in Paris to Charles V and Joan of Bourbon. He became King at age 11 and would later be known and Charles the Mad, due to his bouts with mental illness. He was King at the start of the Hundred Years War, and when he died, most of France was under English occupation.

1887 – Naruhiko, Prince Higashikuni is born to the Japanese royal family and would be the uncle of the future Emperor Hirohito. He was the only member of the Imperial family to be a Cabinet member, when he became Prime Minister for a short time in 1945.

2005 – In not-so-dead royals, Prince Sverre Magnus of Norway is born to the Crown Prince and Princess of Norway. He is currently third in line to the crown after his father, and older sister.

311 – Emperor Diocletian died. Thanks for his Constitutional reforms and the Roman tetrarchy that he introduced – which involves four people in the rank of Emperor, two senior (with the title Augustus) and two junior (with the title Caesar) – the Roman Empire avoided its crisis in the Third Century. While the tetrarchy only lasted another year after his death, the reforms lived on much longer, causing a lot of bureaucracy. [Comment: The Europeans amongst us might remember this parodied in Asterix comics] His reign, lasting from 284 to 305, marks the end of the Principate and the beginning of the Late Antiquity. Long after he was emperor, he was still sought for advice, until, as the last of his fellow tetrarchs, he passed away.

1533 – Vasili III of Russia, Grand Prince of Moscow, passed away. Vasili, being an equally as resolute ruler as his father, Ivan III, continued the latter’s politics, and succeeded in uniting the lands around Moscow. He further expanded, fighting to centralize the Russian state further and implementing more Russian princedoms. He heavily relied on the church to support him against the nobility of the country, and laid the foundations for the autocracy under which his successors would rule. Having livened the relationships with other countries in his reign, he succumbed to an abscess, shortly after asking to become a monk and being named Varlaam. His death day is also disputed, being possibly a day after. However, we went with the most commonly accepted date. As an interesting trivia, everyone probably heard about his son, Ivan IV, known as the Terrible.

1935 – Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom died in England at age 67. She was a granddaughter of her namesake, Queen Victoria as the daughter of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, and thus the sister of George V. She never married and had no children.

1939 – Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll died at age 91. Louise was the 6th child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She had spent time in Canada when her husband was Governor General, but returned after the death of her mother, and was the unconvential royal at ther brother’s court. She had no children.

Have a great day!!