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1259 – Louis IX of France and Henry III of England ratify the Treaty of Paris in which Henry renounces control of most of his French lands, and Louis agrees to stop supporting English rebels against Henry.

1745 – Charles Edward Stuart, or “Bonnie Prince Charlie” reaches the city of Derby in central England. It is as far south as he would go in the last Jacobite uprising, called “the 45”.

1848 – The Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich is born in St. Petersburg as the youngest son of Tsar Alexander III and the brother of the future Nicholas II. When Nicholas formally abdicated in 1917, Michael was named as his successor. However, he would never be confirmed as Tsar and also murdered in 1918.

530 BC – Cyrus the Great died while fighting nomads on the eastern border of his empire. The exact date is only approximate, but this is the most likely day according to several reports. He was the founder of the Archaemenid Empire, later also known as the Persian Empire. In the roughly 30 years of his rule he vanquished several other empires that he added to his ever-expanding domain, and – according to records – made no exception in the nations that he subdued. His son, Cambyses II, would succeed him, and the Persian Empire would last up until 330 BC before being conquered by Alexander the Great.

771 – Carloman, King of the Franks, dies childless, leaving his brother Charlemagne, as his heir. Charlemagne would go on to rule most of continental Europe, after Carloman decided not to support him in the conquest of Aquitaine. Carloman had two children with his wife Gerberga, Pippin the Younger and, allegedly, Eva of Herzfeld, who has been canonized as a Saint within the Catholic Church, and is mainly honoured in Germany.

1214 – William the Lion of Scotland died suddenly of an unsourced cause. His name derives from the red lion on a black and yellow field he had on his standard. It is still part of the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom and Scottish coat of arms. He had spent part of his reign assisting with the revolts against Henry II of England, which ended in his own defeat and capture. In order to return and restore his occupied Scotland, he had to swear fealty to Henry. This lasted 15 years until Richard the Lionheart annulled this arrangement – in return for financial support from William for the Third Crusade. William’s rule of 49 years was one of the longest amongst Scottish monarchs. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander II.

1696 – Empress Meisho, one of only eight women to rule Japan in her own right, died at age 72. Her father abdicated in her favor when she was 7 and she would rule for 15 years, until she abdicated in favor of her younger half brother.

Have a great day!!