, , , , , , , , ,

1496 – Manuel I of Portugal issues a decree exiling all heretics, including Jews, from the country. Jews had the choice of conversion to Christianity or boarding ships to leave the country. However when they came to the ports to leave, they were met with priests, forced baptisims and intimidation to keep them from leaving.

1757 – Frederick the Great of Prussia’s army meets Prince Charles of Lorraine’s Austrian army in the Battle of Leuthen. The battle ended in a rout in favor of the Prussians, with Prince Charles reportedly screaming, “I can’t believe it!” as his army fell apart.

1927 – A not so dead royal birthday today, when Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand was born. He has been King since 1946 and is the worlds longest serving monarch.

1967 – Another not so dead royal birthday, Konstantin-Assen, Prince of Vidin and Duke of Saxony, son of deposed Bulgarian king Simeon II was born in Madrid. He currently lives and works in Spain with his wife and children.

1560 – The 15 year old King Francis II of France, died 18 months into his reign. He became king when his father died suddenly from a jousting accident. He was the son of Henry II and Catherine de Medici, the older brother of Charles IX and Henry III, and husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. Its believed that he died from an abcess from an ear infection.

1891 – Emperor Pedro II of Brazil died in exile in France. He had been overthrown in 1889 after 58 years of rule, in favor of a Republic. He had actually been quite popular with the people, and while his memory suffered at first, it has been rehabilitated and is regarded as one of the greatest Brazilians ever.

1969 – Princess Alice of Battenberg, wife of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and mother to Prince Phillip, Duke of Edinburgh, died at age 84 in Buckingham Palace, the home of her son and daughter in law, Elizabeth II. Born as the oldest child of Prince Louis of Battenberg and Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, she grew up to spend a lot of her life in periodically in Germany, England and the Mediterranean, often exiled from Greece along with its Royal family. She was diagnosed with schizophrenia, living separated from her husband as she went to Switzerland in order to seek treatment. After her recovery she did a lot of charitable work during the Second World War. Returning after the war, in order to attend her only son’s wedding, she used her remaining jewels to create Elizabeth II’s engagement ring.

Have a great day!!