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Birthdays:
1542 – A daughter is born to James V of Scotland and his wife Mary, who would also be christened as Mary. Six days later, James would die and the child would be known as Mary, Queen of Scots. She was sent to France at a young age and raised there, also to later marry the future Francis II of France and be Queen of France as well. She returned to Scotland after the death of Francis, married again, and gave birth to the future James VI  and I of Scotland and England. After a tumultuous few years, she abdicated and fled Scotland, ending up imprisoned under the eyes of her cousin, Elizabeth I of England. She would eventually be executed for treason against Elizabeth for her alleged involvements in multiple plots to assassinate Elizabeth and install Mary as the Catholic Queen of England.

1574 – Maria Anna of Bavaria is born to the Duke and Duchess of Bavaria. In 1600 she would marry Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, and later would mother the future Ferdinand III.

1626 – The future Queen Christina of Sweden is is born in Stockholm as the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus and Queen Maria. She became Queen regnant in 1633 after her fathers death. She would become known for her unconventional lifestyle and manner of dress, later she would be influenced by the Mediterranean countries and would abdicate in 1654, in favor of her cousin, now Charles X Gustav. Almost immediately after,Christina converted to Catholicism, and ended up in Rome, where she lived out her days as a patron of the arts.

1699 – Maria Josepha of Austria is born in Vienna as an Archduchess and daughter to Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was at one point, heir to Austria, but the laws were changed and her cousin, Maria Theresa was named heir. She eventually went on to be Queen of Poland when her husband Augustus III was elected to the throne. She would have 15 children, one of which was stillborn, with twelve living into adulthood. Maria herself lived almost up to her 58th birthday.

1708 – The future Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor was born to the Duke of Lorraine. He rose to prominence when he married Maria Theresa of Austria. Together they founded the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, and had 16 children, including two Holy Roman Emperors, and one ill-fated Queen of France, Marie Antoinette. It is widely believed that while he was a capable administrator, his wife was the true power in their realm, and he was content with that.

1756 – Francis and Maria’s youngest child, Archduke Maxilimilian Francis was born today as well. He spent most of his life in the church as both a Bishop and Archbishop. He was also one of the first employers and patrons of a young Ludwig von Beethoven.

1818 – Prince of Monaco, Charles III is born in Paris today. He is most known for establishing the first casino in Monte Carlo, a city which is actually named for him.

Deaths:
1907 – Oscar II of Sweden died in Stockholm. He was the last king of both Norway and Sweden and helped keep the dissolution of the partnership between the two countries peaceful. He lost the throne of Norway two years before he died. He was succeeded in Sweden by his son, Gustav V.

Have a great day!!

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