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1431 – Henry VI of England is crowned King of France at age 10. His father, Henry V, had been named heir of France by Charles VI. The younger Henry’s entire reign was disputed as the Hundred Years War waged on.

1653 – Oliver Cromwell is sworn in as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland after the dissolution of Parliament. King Charles I had been executed in 1649 and the rest of his family was in exile. Oliver would rule until his death, but the Protectorate would fall apart shortly thereafter.

1485 – A daughter is born to Spain’s power couple, Isabella and Ferdinand, named Catherine. She would later be married to the Prince of Wales, Arthur Tudorm and after Arthur’s death, she married his younger brother, the future Henry VIII. She would bare him several children, only one surviving into adulthood, a daughter Mary. When Catherine could no longer have children, Henry attempted to have the marriage dissolved, but she would not budge, and it was one of the catalysts of the English Reformation.

1790 – The future Leopld I of Belgium is born in Germany. He would be elected King of Belgians after Belgium gained its independance from the Netherlands. He was the uncle of both Queen Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert.

1888 – Alexander I of Yugoslavia is born in Montenegro. He became King after his families restoration and his fathers death in 1921. He officially had the countries name changed from the Kingdom of Serbs, Croates, and Slovenes to the Kingdom of Yugoslovia. He would be assassinated in France while on a state visit in 1934.

1325 – Charles, Count of Valois, died at age 55. He was a general during his nephew, Charles IV of France’s, territorial disputes with Edward II of England. His son would later become Phillip IV of France and found this House of Valois.

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