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1538 – Pope Paul III publishes the bull of Excommunication against Henry VIII of England in response to Henry’s support of the Reformation, and his being declared the Head of the Church in England.

1600 – Henry IV of France and Navarre would marry Marie de Medici daughter of a Tuscan Grand Duke and Austrian Archduchess. The marriage would be successful, with 6 children being born, including one French king, and Spanish and English Queens.

2005 – Jigme Singye Wangchuck abdicates the throne of Bhutan in favor of his eldest son. He had been King since 1974, when he took the throne at eighteen years old.

1734 – Maria I of Portugal is born in Portugal. She was the first undisputed Queen regnant of Portugal, and her husband was given the title of King Consort. Later in life its believed she suffered from mental illness, and actually moved her court to Brazil in 1807 to escape the Napleonic Wars. She would never leave Brazil, dying there in 1816.

1887- Hermine Reuss of Greiz, second wife to Kaiser Wilhelm II is born in German. She married Wilhelm in 1922, after his overthrow. It was the second marriage for both, and was said to be a happy one, despite the thrity year age difference.

2007 – In not so dead royals today, James, Viscount Severn, son to Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Sophie, Countess of Wessex is born in Surrey, England. He is the youngest grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and is 8th in line for the throne of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth realms.

1847 – Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, and former French Empress, died in Italy at age 56. She had been the second wife of Napoleon I and mother to Napoleon II. She had been given the title of Duchess in Parma and the lands after Napoleons overthrow and abdication.

1860 – Desiree Clary, who had once been engaged to Napoleon Bonaparte, died in Stockholm, Sweden where she lived after she married Charles XIV John, King of Sweden and Norway. She had lived well into the reign of her son, Oscar I of Sweden.

1909 – At age 74, King Leopold II of Belgium died in Laken, Belgium. He is known for starting the Congo Free State in Africa, which is now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo. He was quite unpopular at the end of his reign and his funeral procession was actually booed.

Have a great day!!