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1154 – Henry II is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey, after the death of his mother’s cousin, Stephen. Henry was the son of Matilda, disputed Queen of England and daughter of Henry I. Henry brought the indomitable Eleanor of Aquitaine over as his Queen and they founded the Plantagenet dynasty of England.

1920 – After an overwhelming vote to restore him to the throne, King Constantine I of the Hellenes is restored after the death of his son. He abdicated in favour of his son in 1917. But his reign would be short-lived, as he was forced to abdicate again in 1922.

1963 – Zanzibar is given its independance as a constitutional monarchy from the United Kingdom. Jamshid bin Abdullah was the first and only Sultan of Zanzibar, as he was overthrown the following year and is currently living in exile in the UK.

1554 – Phillip William, Prince of Orange is born in The Netherlands as the son of William the Silent of Orange. He would go on to be a key player in the Dutch Revolt his father started against the rule of the Holy Roman Empire.

1683 – Phillip V of Spain is born to the House of Bourbon in Versailles, France. He became King of Spain in 1700 after the death of Charles II. Phillips claim to Spain was through his grandmother, and he was one of several claimants that came forward, which cause the War of Spanish Succession. He would abdicate in favour of his son, Louis in 1724, only to take the crown again a few months later, when Louis died suddenly, and ruled until his own death.

1778 – Marie Therese of France is born as the first child to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. She was the only child of the royal couples to survive the French Revolution. Later in 1830, she became Queen of France for twenty minutes, when her father in law, Charles X signed his abdication, and her husband Louis Antoine signed the same abdication document twenty minutes later.

1075 – Edith of Wessex, widow of King Edward the Confessor of England died after an uncited illness she had suffered from. She had spent her time after Edward’s death reading on the English saints and has been said recently to be the author of the Bayeux tapestry.

1751 – Louise of Great Britain, Queen of Norway and Denmark died from complications associated with a miscarriage. She was carrying her sixth child and was only 27 years old. She was the wife of Frederick V of Denmark and daughter of George II of Great Britain.

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