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Birthdays:
1522 – Margaret, Duchess of Parma, Florence and Piacenza is born in Belgium as the illegitimate daughter of Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and one of his mistresses. She would later spend several years as the successful and effective governor of the Netherlands for her nephew, Phillip II of Spain.

1635 – Princess Elisabeth Stuart was born in London to King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria. Both she and her brother Henry were placed in the care of Parliament when the Civil War broke out in 1642. Although she would be allowed to visit her father before his execution, she was kept as a prisoner in various places in England until her death at age 14.

1945 – Birendra, the last king of Nepal is born in Kathmandu. He succeeded his father in 1972 and ruled through turbulent periods, including the Nepalese Civil War. In 2001, Birendra and his entire family, including wife and children were massacred during a state dinner.

Deaths:
1694 – Queen Mary II of England, Scotland, and Ireland died at age 32 of small pox in London. She and her husband, William III had jointly ruled England since deposing her father during the Glorious Revolution. Mary was very popular with the English people and was much lamented at her death. William and Mary had no children, so after William’s death, Mary’s sister, Anne assumed the throne.

1947 – Victor Emmanuel III of Italy died in exile in Egypt. He had been forced to officially abdicate the previous year, although during World War II, he did not yield much power.

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