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1757 – Robert-Francois Damiens, a former French soldier, attempted to stab King Louis XV as he exited a carriage. Damiens would be condemned to death, and is the last person in France to be executed by hanging, drawing, and quartering.

1209 – Richard of Cornwall is born as the second son to King John of England and Queen Isabella of Angouleme. He would be made Count of Poitou at age 8, and later Earl of Cornwall. Richard was a main player in the Sixth Crusade, and after was actually elected King of the Germans and Romans although he visited the lands very rarely and didn’t interfere with the local governments.

1614 – Austrian Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria is born as the younger son to Emperor Ferdinand II and Empress Maria Anna. He was a largely ineffective general for his brother during the Franco-Spanish War and Thirty Years War. He would also spend time as a governor for the Spanish Netherlands.

1921 – In not so dead royals, Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg was born. He spent time in exile during World War II and served in the British Army. He returned after the war, and ruled until 2000, when he abdicated in favour of his son, Henri.

1938 – Also in not so dead royals, Spanish King Juan Carlos I is born while his family is exiled in Rome. Juan Carlos would not become King until 1975, after the death of dictator Francisco Franco. He is still ruler and is popular as a constitutional monarch.

1066 – Edward the Confessor, later Saint Edward, died childless in London. Harold Godwinson would claim the throne immediately and be crowned today as well. However, William, Duke of Normandy, claimed Edward willed him the throne, which lead to the Norman invasion of England.

1387 – Peter IV of Aragon died near age 70. He would actually become King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica, and Count of Barcelona. He was constanly trying to add further territory but would be hindered by several revolts by nobles in the lands he captured.

1448 – Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden died suddenly at age 31. He harshly put down a peasants rebellion in Denmark, and was wildly unpopular in Sweden.

1589 – The formitable Catherine de Medici, Queen consort of France as the wife of Henry II and mother to Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III of France died at age 69. She was known for her effective administration and attempts to keep her children in power, which they would not have been without her. She is also known for her cruelty as demonstrated during the French Wars of Religion and the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.

1762 – Empress Elizabeth of Russia, daughter to Peter I died at age 52 after just over 20 years as ruler. Sh had helped found Universities and Academies of the Arts. She was popular among the commoners for not executing a single person during her reign and her opposition to Prussian policies and meddling.

Have a great day!!