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1558 – The port city of Calais in France is retaken by French forces after being in English possesion. It was the last continental holding of England from the Hundred Years War.

1989 – Following the death of his father, Hirohito, Prince Akihito of Japan is officially sworn in as Emperor of Japan.

1355 – The thirteenth and youngest child is born in Oxford England to King Edward III and Queen Phillippa. A boy, named Thomas would go on to be a successful military man for his father, and served as regent for his nephew, King Richard III. Thomas would die in prison, placed there by his nephew and probably on his orders.

1528 – Jeanne d’Albret, future Queen regnant of Navarre is born in France. She became Queen in 1555 and was what the French called a Huguenot, or Protestant. She was an influential figure for the Huguenot movement and helped them during the French Wars of Religion. Her son would later unite France and Navarre, as King Henry IV.

1768 – Joseph Bonaparte is born on the island of Corsica as the older brother to Napoleon Bonaparte. When his brother came to power, he made Joseph King of Naples and Sicily, then later King of Spain as well. Joseph would try and rule until his brothers fall, but ultimately came down with him. He would actually steal the Crown Jewels of Spain when he left, and sold them when he settled in the US.

1796 – Princess Charlotte of Wales is born in London to the Prince and Princess of Wales, George and Caroline. Her father eventually became George IV and was wildly unpopular with the people, so Charlotte was seen as the next great hope. However she would die at age 21 after giving birth to a stillborn son by her husband, the future King Leopold I of the Belgians.

1845 – In Munich, the last King of Bavaria, Ludwig III is born. He became King in 1913, but would be deposed with the end of World War I in 1918, living out his days in exile, in Hungary.

1939 – In not so dead royals, Prince Michael of Greece and Denmark is born as the grandson to George I of Greece. He entered into a morganatic marriage and thus renounced his claim to any thrones. He is also an accomplished historical fiction writer.

1285 – Charles I of Naples would die at age 58. He was the son of Louis VIII of France and became King of Naples by conquest and Papal decree in 1266. He spent a considerable time of his reign fighting wars in the Crusades and with the other powers both inside and outside his lands, including Aragon, in Spain.

1325 – King Denis of Portugal dies in Santarem at age 63. He started his reign in conflict with the Church by giving aid to persecuted Templars from France. Both he and his wife started and funded many charitable organizations for the poor, and Denis was driven with improving all of Portugal. He would sign Portugal’s first ever overseas trade agreement, with England, in 1308. And the border pact he signed in 1297 with the King of Aragon, is still in place today.

1536 – Catherine of Aragon, first Queen consort to Henry VIII of England dies of probably cancer at age 50. She had been expelled from court years before, and her marriage to Henry was annulled by the early Church of England in 1533. Catherine had been married to Henry’s older brother Arthur, briefly when they were teenagers, but she claimed the marriage was never consummated. When Henry decided to marry another, as Catherine could have no more children, and they only had a daughter, he said she lied. She would never admit to it, and was unapologetic, calling herself his true wife and Queen until her last breath.

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