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1297 – Francesco Grimaldi, a leader and noble from Genoa, Italy, dressed as a monk with some men, to sneak into the only palace in Monaco. They were able to capture the palace and the legendary Rock of Monaco. The Grimaldi family still rules Monaco today.

1499 – King Louis XII of France marries the indomitable Duchess Anne of Brittany, his cousin, Charles VIII’s widow. They would have no sons, but two daughters. The eldest, Claude, became Duchess of Brittany in her own right, after her mother’s death, and also Queen of France, when she married Francis I, thus uniting Brittany and France.

1746 – During the Second Jacobite Rising, Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Stuart claimant, captured the town of Stirling in Scotland, but was not able to capture the castle. The rebellion ultimately failed.

1864 – Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Avondale and Clarence, was born in Windsor, to Prince of Wales and future King Edward VII, and Princess Alexandra. He would spend time in the military, but not undergo any actual fighting. He would die early of influenza at age 28, just after being engaged to Victoria Mary, a German Princess, who after his death, bonded and ultimately married his younger brother, the future George V.

1873 – Elena of Montenegro is born ad the daughter of Nicholas I of Montenegro. She became Queen of Italy when she married Victor Emmanuel III in 1900. Her son, Umberto II was the last Italian King.

2011- In not so dead royals, twins are born in Copenhagen to Danish Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary. A boy and a girl are christened Vincent and Josephine. They are fifth and sixth in line to the throne of Denmark.

No major deaths.

Have a great day!!