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1265 – Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, holds the first meeting of Parliament in England at the Palace in Westminster.

1356 – Edward Balliol, King of Scotland is forced to abdicate his claim to the crown to Edward III of England. He had been fighting with forces loyal to the child heir, David II, son of Robert the Bruce.

1523 – Christian II of Denmark is forced to abdicate the crowns of Norway and Denmark. He had also been King of Sweden in 1520 through 1521 where he was known as “Christian the Tyrant”. He was overthrown in Denmark and Norway for his far reaching reforms and spent years in exile trying to drum up military support. He attempted one invasion, but was caught and imprisoned.

1649 – The trial of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland begins. Charles was on trial for treason and other high crimes, for his refusal to cede some power to Parliament. Charles would be found guilty and executed.

1292 – Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia is born to King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and Queen Judith. She would later become Queen consort of Bohemia when her husband John of Luxembourg invaded Bohemia. She would actually attempt to plot to overthrow her husband and replace him with their son, the future Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. She would be unsuccessful and her children taken from her.

1554 – Sebastian of Portugal is born two weeks after the death of his father, John, the Prince of Portugal. He was then born as the heir apparent of his grandfather, John III, who he would succeed at age 3. He would die young, at age 24, during fighting with the Moroccans.

1716 – Charles III of Spain would be born in Spain. He would also become King if Naples and Sicily, but would eventually abdicate the Italian crowns to his son, Ferdinand. He would enact major reforms to strenghten Spain, by weakening the church and modernizing the country, but his reforms would die out shortly after his death.

1965 – In not-so-dead royals, Sophie, Countess of Wessex, wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex is born in Oxford. She would marry Prince Edward, youngest child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip in 1999. They have two children and is known to be particularly close to her mother in law.

1973 – Queen Mathilde of Belgium is born in Uccle. She is married to King Phillip. Before her entrance to court life, she worked as an academically high accredited speech therapist in Brussels. Mathilde is the first Queen consort of the Belgians to be born in Belgium as well.

1479 – John II of Aragon would die at age 81 in Barcelona. He had worked tirelessly to see Spain united, and would succeed after his son, Ferdinand, married Isabella of Castile. John’s children would also rule the Kingdom of Navarre.

1612 – Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, died unmarried at age 59 in Prague. He has a mixed legacy, as both a influential patron of the arts and sciences, and as an ineffective ruler who laid the groundwork for the Thirty Years War.

1666 – Anne of Austria, daughter of Phillip III and II of Spain and Portugal, wife of Louis XIII, and mother and regent to her son, Louis XIV died in Paris at age 64. Her son became King at age 4, and she ruled in his stead until his majority in 1651. She still kept much power and influence in the French court until her death. She was known for her intelligence and political skill.

1819 – Charles IV of Spain dies in exile, living in Rome at age 70. He had been forced to abdicate in 1808 during the Napoleonic Wars in favour of his son, Ferdinand. However through the course of the wars, he was forced to renounce his abdication, then re-abdicate in favour of Napoleon.

1848 – Christian VIII of Denmark, and one time King of Norway, died in Copenhagen at age 61. He had reluctantly overseen the separation of Denmark and Norway. He had been quite popular and known for his attractiveness and amiability.

1891 – King Kalakaua, the last King of Hawaii died while visiting San Francisco. He was called The Merrie Monarch for his outgoing nature, and is credited with helping to revive native Hawaiian culture. His sister, Liliuokalani, would become Queen after him and would see Hawaii annexed to the United States.

1936 – King George V of the United Kingdom dies at age 70 while in his house in Sandringham. He had been a steadfast leader throughout trying times in Europe, including World War I. He was succeeded by his son, Edward VII, who would abdicate the crown to marry a twice divorced American, Wallis Simpson. George’s second son would become King as George VI, and his granddaughter is now Queen Elizabeth II.

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