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1542 – A Bill of Attainder is passes in Parliament declaring Catherine Howard guilty of treason against her husband, Henry VIII. She was his 5th wife, and barely out of her teens. She was accused of having an affair with one of Henry’s grooms, Thomas Culpeper, and it was discovered that she was in a sexual relationship with another man, Francis Dereham, who she hired to be her secretary when she became queen. Catherine would be sentenced to death.

1338 – Charles V of France is born to the future John II of France and his queen Bonne of Bohemia. His grandfather, Phillip VI, gave him the lands of the Dauphine region, which gave him the title of “Dauphin”. The lands then merged with the crown upon his accession, and every French heir since then has been called the Dauphin until his accession. He oversaw part of the Hundred Years War, when France was able to regain some territory, but all would be lost when his son, Charles VI became king.

1829 – Oscar II of Sweden and Norway is born in Stockholm as the son of Oscar I. He was ruler when the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden happened in 1905, and he is credited with helping to keep it peaceful through his patience and political skill. He was also known and loved for his patronage and encouragement of the studies of sciences and arts.

1937 – In not so dead royals, Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria was born today. He is the head of the titular Bavarian Royal family, that was dissolved after World War I. One of his daughters, Sophie, is married to the Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein.

2004 – Also in not-so-dead royals, Princess Ingrid Alexandra is born in Oslo, Norway. She is the daughter of Crown Prince Haakon of Norway and is currently second in line for the succession, behind only her father.

1793 – Louis XVI of France mounts the scaffold for his execution by guillotine, a tool approved for capital punishment under his rule. He had been found guilty of crimes against the people of France and was stripped of his titles, being referred to as Louis Capet. It was reported that he reiterated his innocence and said that he was glad to die if it would save the lives of the French people. His wife, Marie Antoinette, would be executed in October of that year. Only one of their children, their oldest daughter, Marie-Therese-Charlotte, would survive the Revolution.

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