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1689 – The Convention Parliament assembled in London to decide if James II and VII of England and Scotland abdicated the thrones when he fled to France the previous year. His son in law, William of Orange, landed on England’s shores with an army set to deposed the Catholic monarch in what we now call the Glorious Revolution.

1797 – Maria Leopoldina of Austria is born in Vienna as the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II and Queen Maria Theresa. She went on to become Queen consort of Portugal, and Brazil’s first Empress consort when she married Pedro I of Brazil. Maria was highly educated, but Pedro was not, so while their marriage was successful from a child standpoint, Maria was not always happy. Sadly she would die at age 29 after a miscarriage with her eighth child.

1831 – Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein is born in Denmark. He was the second son of a Danish/German Duke. He was never expected to accede to the throne of Denmark to the Duchy, but in 1866, he married a daughter of Queen Victoria, Princess Helena. They primarily lived in Britain, and Christian served in World War I for the British. He and his family had to renounce their German titles in 1917, when King George V changed the family name from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, to the English sounding Windsor.

1901 – The indomitable Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Empress of India dies at age 81. She had been Queen for 63 years, the longest of any British monarch, acceding to the throne when she was barely 18. Alexandrina Victoria, as she was born, should in theory, not have been Queen, since her father was the fourth son of George III. But all of her uncles, who include George IV and William IV, and her father all died without legitimate children or before her. She had nine children, whom she all married to various European royal houses, earning her the nickname “The Grandmother of Europe.” She was succeeded by her eldest son, the fun loving Edward VII.

Have an awesome day!!