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1679 – King Charles II of England and Scotland dissolves the session of Parliament known as the “Cavalier Parliament”. It was in session for 18 years of Charles’ 25 year reign, and is the longest sitting session of Parliament.

1742 – Charles VII becomes Holy Roman Emperor after his father in law, Joseph I, dies. Charles would be a major player in the War of Austrian Succession and would only be Emperor until 1745. He was the first non-Hapsburg Emperor in three hundred years, and the only non-Hapsburg until the end of the Empire in 1806.

76 – Publius Aleius Hadrianus is born in Italic. History knows him better as one of the Five Good Roman Emperors, Hadrian. He would become Emperor in 117m and rule until 138. One of his more famous accomplishments is the building of Hadrian’s wall, in Northern Britain, marking the end of Roman terrirtory. The wall still stands today.

1712 – The future Frederick II of Prussia is born in Berlin. Know also as “Frederick the Great” at one time he was at odds with his father, Frederick William I, and even spent time in prison. As king he is known for his military brilliance, and his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment, as well as religous tolerance.

1746 – Gustav III of Sweden is born in Stockholm. Becoming King in 1771 as the son of Adolph Frederick of Sweden, he rule ended what is referred to as the Age of Liberty in Sweden. He had powers that we taken away from the monarchy restored, and while he was liberal in his religous and economic policies, he also killed most independent media. He would be killed at age 46 in an attempted coup.

1779 – Princess Louise of Baden is born in Germany to the Hereditary royal family of Baden. Married off at age 14 to the future Alexander I of Russia, her name was changed upon her conversion to Eastern Orthodox to Elizabeth Alexievna. Her marriage to Alexander was rocky, but they produced two children, daughters, but neither lived past childhood. She would die just days after her husband at age 47.

2012 – In not so dead royalty, a daughter is born to Prince Joachim and Princess Marie of Denmark, named Athena. She is currently tenth in line to the Danish crown.

41 – The first Roman Emperor to be assassinated, Caligula was killed by officers of the Praetorian Guard, at age 28. The killing was carried out, most likely due to his erratic behavior and despotic nature. It is said that he engaged in incest with his sisters and also prostituted them out, and making his horse a priest, with the promise to make the animal a Consul of Rome. Stories abound of Caligula’s insanity and cruelty. He was succeeded by his uncle, Claudius.

1002 – Otto III, the 21 year old Holy Roman Emperor dies suddenly and childless, while fighting rebellions in Italy. This caused a succession crisis and various claims to the crowns of the Empire came up, as the Italians were resentful of German rule. He was the last of the Ottonian dynasty.

1336- Alfonso IV of Aragon died in Barcelona at about age 34. He was a second son, but became heir when his brother renounced his claim to become a monk. He was known as Alfonso the Kind, and was succeeded by his son, Peter IV.

1924 – Marie-Adelaide, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg died at age 24 while in Bavaria of influenza. She had been the ruler of Luxembourg from 1912 to 1919, but was forced to abdicate in favour of her sister, Charlotte because of her perceived Pro-German sympathies. She was the first ruler of the small country to have actually been born there since 1296.

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