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1141 – The Battle of Lincoln takes place in England as part of the larger civil war known as the Anarchy. The forces of Empress Matilda defeated her cousin, King Stephen, taking him prisoner and securing her places as Queen for a short time.

1901 – The funeral of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom takes place. She had laid in state for two days and was buried with various effects from her family and companions through life. It snowed as she was interred next to her husband, Prince Albert.

1208 – James I of Aragon is born in Spain as the son of Peter II of Aragon. He would become King at age 5 after the death of his father and rule until majority under a regency. He would become known as James the Conqueror for his expansion of Aragonese lands and for his part in the early Reconquista.

1455 – John I of Denmark would be born in Aalborg Castle to King Christian I and Queen Dorothea. Later on he would hold the crowns of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. He would hold Denmark and Norway until his death, but lose Sweden in 1501, after four years of rule.

1494 – In Italy, Bona Sforza, future Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuiania is born to the powerful Sforza family of Milan. Among her children, she could number a King of Poland and Lithuania, the Queen consort to her son’s elected successor, a Queen of Hungary, and a Queen of Sweden. She would return to Italy after becoming a widow, but he poisoned by someone who owed her considerable monies.

1882 – Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark is born in Athens as a son to King George I of Greece and Queen Olga. Prince Andrew is most famous in his youngest child, who we know today as the husband of Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Phillip, Duke of Edinburgh.

1461 – Owen Tudor would be executed as a prisoner of war after the Lancastrian forces he led in the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross during the Wars of the Roses. He was the husband of Catherine of Valois, Dowager Queen of England as the wife to Henry V and mother to Henry VI. His grandson would go on to be the future Henry VII of England, making Owen the founder of the Tudor dynasty.

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