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1301 – Edward of Caernarvon, son of Edward I and future Edward II of England is formally installed as Prince of Wales, starting the tradition of the heir apparent bearing that title.

1102 – Believed to be the birthdate of Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. She became Holy Roman Empress at a young age, but was widowed when her husband, Henry V died. She would return to England and be named her father’s heir to the English crown, but at his death, her cousin, Stephen, was crowned instead, because of Matilda being a woman. Thus started a period called The Anarchy as she and Stephen fought for years. She finally relinquished her claim, but her son by her second husband, would go on to be the formidable Henry II of England.

1693 – Anna Ioannovna is born to Tsar Ivan V of Russia. She was also the niece of Peter the Great and thus became Empress in 1730 after the death of Peter II. She was known for her cruelty, especially to the nobility. She would further alienate the Russian nobles when she denied them government positions, instead giving them to German courtiers. She reigned for ten years, and was succeeded by Peter’s daughter, Elizabeth.

1837 – Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden died at age 58 while exiled in Switzerland. He had been King from 1792 until 1809, when his failed diplomatic and war policies caught up with him. It was under his rule that Finland was lost by the Swedes and gained by the Russians. Not only was he forced to abdicate, but his sons were also barred from the succession, leaving his uncle to be declared Charles XIII.

1999 – King Hussein of Jordan dies after a trip to the US of lymphoma. It was his second battle with cancer, having also fought kidney cancer years before. He was 63 years old and had been king for 46 years. Shortly before he died, he changed his will to remove his brother, Hassan as his heir, and thus left the throne to his son, the current Jordanian king, Abdullah II.