1462 – Edward IV of England and the Scottish Lords of the Isles sign the Treaty of Westminster, which divided any lands conquered by England in the future with England and the Lords. It also secured Scotland’s support in the Wars of the Roses for the House of York, where they had previously supported the Lancasters.
1575 – Henry III of France is crowned at Rheims and marries Louise of Lorraine. His reign would be dominated by the bloody French Wars of Religion.
1689 – William of Orange and Princess Mary Stuart are declared to be co-rulers of England, Scotland, and Ireland after the Glorious Revolution which deposed Mary’s father and William’s uncle, James VII and II. Mary was first in line behind her father, and William was third, with Mary’s sister, Anne, in between them, and later succeeding them.
1457 – Mary of Burgundy is born to Duke Charles and Duchess Isabella of Burgundy. She was the only child of the couple, and thus became ruler of Burgundy and parts of the Low Countries at her father’s death. She was just 20 when she came to power, but due to her extensive titles and lands, she was known as “Mary the Rich”. She would marry Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1141 – Bela III of Hungary dies of what was probably alcohol poisoning at age 33. He had become King in 1131 after the death of his cousin, Stephen II. He had spent a good part of his reign at war with his illegitimate cousin, Boris, but did not lose power, and even expanded Hungarian territories. He was also blind from wounds in battle before he ascended to the throne.
1542 – Catherine Howard, fifth wife of Henry VIII of England, and her lady in waiting, Lady Jane Rochford, who was the sister in law to Anne Boleyn, mount the scaffold for their execution. Catherine was guilty of committing adultery against the King, by having a sexual affair with one of his grooms, Thomas Culpeper. Jane was found guilty of treason for aiding them in their liaisons, and helping to conceal the affair. Catherine was between 17 and 20 years old, and Jane was either 36 or 37.
1660 – Charles X Gustav of Sweden dies after a month long illness at age 37. His son and successor, Charles XI was only four years old, and thus being ruled through a regency. The Swedish government capitalizes on the opportunity to being attempts to make peace with their enemies and end the Second Northern War, which the elder Charles had been completely against.
1662 – Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia and daughter to James VI and I of Scotland and England, died at age 65 in London, where she had been visiting her nephew, Charles II after his restoration. Her descendants would later rule England as the House of Hanover, after the Protestant Stuarts died out. She is also famously known as the Winter Queen, being the wife of the Winter King, Frederick V, who – hence his namesake – only ruled for one winter.
Have a great day!!