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1503 – An eleven year old Henry, the future Henry VIII of England, is created Prince of Wales, following the death of his older brother, Arthur.

1861 – Victor Emmanuel II, King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia begins using the title King of Italy, due to his successes in the Wars of Italian Unification. The war would be officially over in just a months time.

1374 – Possible birth date of Jadwiga of Poland, first Queen regnant of Poland. She became Queen at the approximate age of ten, and was crowned as King, not Queen, to show her reign was by birthright, not marriage. She was active in her government, but most day to day activities were done by her husband, who became ruler after her death, and her council. She would give birth to a daughter in 1399, and both Jadwiga and the baby would die within the month. She would later be sainted.

1516 – The future Mary I of England is born to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon in Greenwich. She was later disinherited and deemed illegitimate when her father had his marriage to her mother annulled in 1533. She would become the first undisputed Queen regnant of England in 1553 and try to undo the Reformation, which was in full swing in England at the time. She persecuted Protestant leaders, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, earning her the epithet “Bloody Mary”.

1947 – In not so dead royals, Princess Christina of the Netherlands is born to Queen Juliana and Prince Berhard. She is the youngest sister of former queen, Beatrix, and aunt to the current King Willem-Alexander. Queen Juliana had German measles during her pregnancy which left the little Princess almost blind at birth, but with modern advances, she has been able to live normally. One of her godparents is Winston Churchill, and she officially opted for her second name Christina in 1963, prior to that it was Marijke.

1984 – Stephanie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Luxembourg was born in Belgium. She was a Countess in her own right, until 2012, when she married Guillaume, the heir to the Grand Ducal throne of Luxembourg. At the age of 18, she stayed in Moscow for a year, in order to study Russian. She also finished her master in German philology in Berlin.

1478 – George, Duke of Clarence is executed in private at the Tower of London after being convicted for treason. He was attained for treason for going the Lancastrian forces against his brother, Edward IV, during the War of the Roses. He was also the older brother of Richard III. How George was executed is still open to debate, as beheading was the traditional method, but when his skeleton was exhumed, it did not show signs of the head being removed. There are reports of his being drowned in a vat of wine, but there is no way to corroborate the story.

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