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1848 – King Louis-Phillipe of France abdicates the throne of France in favour of the Second French Republic. He had started out as a popular monarch, but as his ineffective rule continued, working conditions got worse, and the income gap got wider. He would be the last King of France, but not its last monarch.

1500 – The future Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V was born today in Ghent, Belgium, to Joanna of Castile and Phillip of Burgundy. He was also the grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain. His father was the Burgundian heir and Hapsburg heir, thus when Charles came to power, he was ruler of most of Europe. He would spend most of his reign fighting the French and the Ottomans, and eventually fighting to stop the spread of the Reformation in Germany.

1557 – Another Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias, is born in Vienna to Emperor Maximilian II and Empress Maria. He would also later be King of Hungary and Croatia, and King of Bohemia. He had attempted to give concessions to Protestants to bring about peace, however, his policies would be undone by his successor.

1386 – Charles III of Naples died at age 41 today in Hungary from wounds from an attempted assassination earlier in the month. He was attempting to claim the crown of Hungary after the death of Louis I of Hungary. Louis’ only successor was a young daughter, Mary. Mary’s mother, Elisabeth of Bosnia is said to have ordered the assassination.

1777 – Joseph I of Portugal died today at age 62. He is known as “Joseph the Reformer” but the actual policies of his reign came from the Marquis of Pombal. He would be succeeded by his daughter, Maria.

Have a great day!