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1570 – Pope Pius V issues a bull called Regnans in Excelsis declaring Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releasing her subjects from any allegiance to her. It also encouraged her subjects to aid in any rebellion. It did not have the desired effect with most people, but caused Elizabeth’s government to began treating Catholics more harshly.

1883 – Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone is born in England to Prince Leopold, son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She would marry into a minor German royal family from the duchy of Teck. They were forced to relinquish their German titles by Alice’s cousin, King George V in order to retain their British titles, after World War I. Princess Alice would live to be 97 years old, and be the longest living Blood Princess of the British Royal family, and the last surviving grandchild of Queen Victoria.

1885 – Another Princess Alice, this one of Battenberg is born also to the British royal family. She was the daughter of Prince Louis of Battenberg and Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. She would later marry Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark. Her life would be marred by mental illness and stays in hospitals, but her most famous contribution to history would be being the mother of Prince Phillip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II.

1558 – Eleanor of Austria dies at age 59 in Spain, where she lived close to her brother, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She had been both Queen consort of Portugal, when she married Manuel I of Portugal, until his death in 1521, and later Queen consort of France upon her marriage to Francis I of France from 1530 until his death in 1547.

1713 – King Frederick I of Prussia dies in Berlin at age 55. His was the first Prussian monarch to use the title King in Prussia. He had be be designated that way, as the Holy Roman Empire still held dominion over his territories. He was known for his patronage of the arts, including the founding of the Academy of Sciences in 1713.

1912 – William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg died in Berg at age 59. He was the last Protestant ruler of Luxembourg, as well as the last monarch to die while in office. His daughter, Marie-Adelaide succeeded him, as the first female ruler, until her abdication in 1919, when her sister, Charlotte, followed her to the crown.

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