1266 – The Battle of Benevento occurs between forces loyal to Charles of Anjou and Manfred of Sicily. Manfred would be killed in battle. Pope Urban IV, who supported Charles, would crown him as King of Sicily shortly thereafter.
1658 – The Treaty of Roskilde is finalized between Frederick III of Denmark and Norway and Charles X Gustav of Sweden, ending the Second Northern War. Denmark had been soundly defeated and was forced to give up half its territory to Sweden.
1815 – The deposed French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from captivity on the island of Elba. He would arrive on the French mainland 2 days later and march into Paris for the Hundred Days by the end of the following month.
1746 – Maria Amalia is born as an Archduchess of Austria as a daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa. She would go on to be the Duchess of Parma by marriage. She was the sibling of two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II, and also Queen consort of Naples Maria Carolina, and the ill-fated French Queen consort, Marie Antoinette.
1861 – The future Ferdinand I of Bulgaria is born in Vienna. He would go on the be elected Prince regnant of Bulgaria, and later be declared Tsar. He would later be forced to abdicate in favour of his son Boris after the Bulgarian defeat in World War I, in 1918.
1577 – Eric XIV of Sweden is believed to have been poisoned and died today after eating his last meal. He had been dethroned by his brother in 1568 for erratic behavior and insanity. He was more than likely schizophrenic. His remains were examined in 1958 and he was found to have been poisoned by arsenic.
1933 – Princess Thyra of Denmark, daughter of King Christian IX and Queen Louise died at age 79 in Austria. She had married the Crown Prince of Hanover, but his father lost the throne and thus the couple spent most of their marriage in exile. Her husband was also a member of the British royal family as the Duke of Cumberland. Her siblings would include Frederik VIII of Denmark, George I of Greece, Queen Alexandria of the United Kingdom, and Empress Maria of Russia.
Have a great day!!