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1566 – David Rizzio, an Italian and personal secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots is murdered in her private chambers, in her presence. Mary was seven months pregnant with the future James VI and the murder was orchestrated by Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Mary’s husband. Darnley was jealous of the attention and affection Mary showered on David.

1796 – The future French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte would marry his first wife, Josephine de Beauharnais. He would have her crowned as Empress, but the marriage would end in divorce, because Josephine would be unable to bear children.

1629 – The future Tsar Alexei I of Russia is born in Moscow as the son of Michael I and Eudoxia Streshneva. He ruled for over 30 years and was considered a strong and good ruler. He would have 3 sons that would go on to be Tsars, Fyodor III, Ivan V, and the famous Peter I. His daughter Sophia, would even rule as regent for her brothers at one point.

1202 – Norwegian king Sverre of Norway died in Bergen of a short illness. He’s most famous for his leadership during the two civil wars that occurred during his reign. He had also been excommunicated from the Catholic church in 1194. He was also said to have been so short, that he had to lead his troops from horseback, against the Norse tradition of leading them from the front lines.

1888 – The first German Emperor, Wilhelm I, dies at age 90. He was at first King of Prussia, but later, through several years of fighting, became Emperor of a unified Germany. He had also brought the famous statesman Otto von Bismarck to prominence. He would be succeeded by his son, Frederick, who was already ill with cancer and would only rule for 99 days. His grandson, Wilhelm II would rule as the last German rulers.

Have a great day!!