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1337 – A young Edward, son of Edward III and Queen Philippa is created Duke of Cornwall at the age of 6. It was the first creation of a Duke in England. The young Edward would be created Prince of Wales in 1343 and the title is customary still for the Prince of Wales to hold.

1805 – The Italian Republic is declared a Kingdom, with Napoleon Bonaparte, the French Emperor, as its King.

1861 – Following the War of Italian Unification, the various Italian Kingdoms and city-states are united again as the Kingdom of Italy, under the rule of King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia.


1473 – The future James IV, King of Scotland is born in Stirling Castle. He was the son of James III and Margaret of Denmark. James would become King at age 15, after the death of his father while fighting a rebellion in the summer of 1488. James would take the reigns of government quickly and prove himself as a ruler, and be interested in nothing but peace with his southern neighbors. His wife would be Princess Margaret, daughter of Henry VII and sister of Henry VIII. They would have one son live through infancy, the future James V. James would die in 1513, when war finally broke out with England.

1886 – Princess Patricia of Connaught is born as the daughter to Prince Arthur, Duke of Strathearn and Connaught, and a granddaughter to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She would spend years of her childhood living abroad with her family, as her father was granted appointments in India and Canada. She would be a commodity on the marriage market, but she would voluntarily relinquish her status as a Princess of the United Kingdom to marry a Naval commander named Alexander Ramsay.


1040 – Harold Harefoot died after just five years on the throne. He was the son of Cnut, King of Denmark, Norway, and England. At first, the Kingdoms would be divided between Harold and his half-brother, Harthacnut. However the divide would be short lived as the brothers would be at war shortly after Harold’s coronation.

1849 – William II of the Netherlands dies suddenly at age 56 after a short illness. He had been King for almost 9 years after the abdication of his father, William I. After rebellions all across Europe in 1848, William was supportive of a Constitution granting wide reforms to the Dutch people. He had been known as a successfully military leader prior to his accession, during the Napoleonic Wars.

Have an awesome day!!