1815 – French Emperor Napoleon I enters Paris with an army of over 100,000 soldiers after his return from Elba. This would begin what’s called the Hundred Days Rule, which would end with his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo and a second exile on the island of Saint Helena.
1848 – Bavarian King Ludwig I abdicates the throne after the Revolutions of 1848. He had become less and less liberal and more repressive as his reign went on, and was growing increasingly unpopular. He was forced to sign a constitution that limited his powers and he was unwilling to rule as a constitutional monarch.
1469 – Cecily of York is born in London to King Edward IV and Queen Elizabeth Woodville. She was the sister to the Princes in the Tower, Edward V and Richard, Duke of York, and Elizabeth of York, who was the Queen consort of England as the wife of Henry VII of England. She was contracted to advantageous marriages after her sister’s accession, and would periodically live at court. She would pass away at age 38, just a couple years into her third marriage.
1811 – A son is born to Napoleon I of France and Queen Marie Louise. He was technically Emperor of France for two very brief periods in 1814 and 1815, but he never actually ruled. He is still referred to as Napoleon II. He would live in Austria as a Duke after the Bourbon restoration in 1815. Sadly he would die young, at age 21, while living in Vienna.
1413 – Henry IV of England dies at age 45, from a combination of illnesses. He had come to the throne after overthrowing his cousin, Richard II. Henry was the first King from the House of Lancaster. He had to quell several uprisings and attempted assassinations. Henry’s reign began to lay the seeds of the War of the Roses against the rival House of York. Henry was succeeded by his son, Henry V.
1934 – Queen Emma of the Netherlands dies at age 75 in The Hague. She was the wife of William III of the Netherlands, and would serve as regent for her young daughter, Wilhelmina, after her husband’s death in 1890. She stepped down as regent in 1898 as Wilhelmina turned 18. She remained active as the popular Queen mother until her death.
2004 – Queen Juliana of the Netherlands died at age 94 from pneumonia and complications from Alzheimer’s disease. She was the daughter of Queen Wilhelmina and became Queen herself in 1948, after her mother’s abdication. Juliana would rule until her own abdication in 1980, when she was succeeded by her daughter, Princess Beatrix, who herself abdicated in favor of her son, King Willem-Alexander. At her death, she was the longest lived former monarch in the world. She also has an asteroid named after her, the 816 Juliana.
Have a great day!!