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1152 – Pope Eugene declares the marriage between Louis VII of France and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine invalid and annulled on the grounds of consanguinity. They had been married since 1137, but had two daughters and no sons. The marriage had been in trouble since the failed Second Crusade. In a matter of months, Eleanor would remarry the younger and equally indomitable Henry, Count of Anjou, the future Henry II of England.

1413 – Henry of Monmouth is declared King of England the day after the death of his father, Henry IV. We know him as Henry V, who renewed his families claim to the crown of France, and would have many military victories there, include the battle of Agincourt.


1801 – Maria Theresa of Austria is born in Vienna to the exiled Grand Duke and Duchess of Tuscany, during the Napoleonic Wars. She was also a member of the Austrian royal family. She married the future Charles Albert of Sardinia and became Queen consort of Sardinia. They would have two sons, the eldest was Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of a United Italy.

2004 – In not so dead royals, Count Claus-Casimir of Orange-Nassau is born in The Hague as a grandson to the then Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands. He was born the day after the death of his great-grandmother, Queen Juliana. He is currently sixth in line for the Dutch throne.

No major deaths.