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1720 -Count Frederick of Hesse-Kassel is elected to be King of Sweden after his wife, Ulrika Eleanora abdicated in his favour. Ulrika acceded to the throne with the intention to rule as co-monarchs, but the Riksdag would not approve.

2008 – Bhutan holds its first elections, and thus made the transition from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy.


1628 – Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Luneburg is born in Lower Saxony, Germany. In 1643, she would marry the future Frederick III of Denmark and Norway. They would accede to the throne in 1648. She was popular and exercised political influence at first, but her feuds with her husbands family and overreaching during other affairs, her popularity waned and she was cut out of political circles. She and Frederick would have 8 children, which would number the next King of Denmark and Norway and a Queen of Sweden.


1603 – Queen Elizabeth I of England dies at age 69 at Richmond Palace. She had been on the throne for over 44 years. Elizabeth was the only child of King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. She came to the throne after the deaths of her half siblings, Edward VI and Mary I, and even spent time in the Tower of London and under house arrest during Mary’s reign. She is famous for never marrying, as her counselors could never decide on a proper suitor, and she declared herself married to her people. In her later reign, the cult of the Virgin Queen grew around her, as it became obvious she would not have children. The defeat of the Spanish Armada only fueled such mythos. While she would never publicly name her successor during her reign, it was said that during her last days, she named James VI of Scotland as her heir.

1953 – Queen Mary, consort of George V of the United Kingdom died at age 85 in London, just weeks before the coronation of her granddaughter, Elizabeth II. She was the mother of two British monarchs, Edward VIII and George VI. One of her pet projects during her time as Queen had been identifying and having various objects, art, and jewelry that the Royal family had loaned out over the years that were never returned. She also increased the Royal Jewelry collection. Mary, knowing she was sick, and that Elizabeth’s coronation was upcoming, had requested that the ceremonies not be postponed in the event of her death. Her wishes were honored.

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