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1461 – The forces of Edward, Duke of York, defeat the forces of the Lancastrian Henry VI, led by Henry’s wife, Queen Margaret. This would be called the Battle of Towton, and is part of the Wars of the Roses. This victory would propel Edward to claim the throne of England as Edward IV, the first Yorkist King of England.

1809 – Gustav IV Adolph formally abdicates the throne of Sweden. His rule to date had been mostly a disaster, culminating with the invasion of Finland by Russia, in which later in 1809, Sweden would agree to give Finland to Russia. Gustav attempted to abdicate in favor of his son, but the Riksdag did not want the later vengeance from the son, so they declared that Gustav’s entire family abdicated, and his uncle assumed the throne as Charles XIII.

1867 – The British North American Act is given Royal Assent by Queen Victoria, which would formally establish Canada as a dominion of the British Empire later that year.

No major birthdays.


1792 – King Gustav III of Sweden dies 2 weeks after a being shot at a party. Gustav had taken power away the nobility and established many Parliamentary reforms, as well as social, economic, and he started to abolish torture and capital punishment in some cases. He held immense powers, which upon his death, went to his brother, Carl, who ruled as regent until Gustav’s son, the above mentioned Gustav IV Adolph reached majority.

1956 – Infante Alfonso of Spain dies at age 14, while in Portugal with the rest of the exiled Spanish royal family. Alfonso was accidentally shot while, it is said, he and his brother, the future Juan Carlos I of Spain, were cleaning a gun. Rumors circulated, but its widely believed that it was an accidental shooting.

Have a great day!!