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1146 – Bernard of Clairvaux preaches a sermon which inspires Louis VII of France and his wife, Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, to join on the Second Crusade. The Crusade would be a massive failure.

1492 – The Alhambra decree is issued in the Spanish country of Castile ordering 150,000 Jewish residents to convert to Christianity to be expelled.

1360 – Philippa of Lancaster is born in England to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Duchess Blanche, and thus was a granddaughter of Edward III of England. Her brother would later become Henry IV of England. She would later marry John I of Portugal and have six surviving children with him who would include King Edward of Portugal and the famous Henry the Navigator. She was widely loved in Portugal as a symbol of everything a good Queen and woman should be.

1519 – The future Henry II of France is born to Francis I and Queen Claude of France. He became King 1547 and married the infamous Catherine de Medici. He would die suddenly at 40 after an injury jousting. This would leave his wife to act as regent for his teenaged son, Francis II. Two of his other sons would also become kings as Charles IX and Henry III.

1718 – Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain is born in Madrid to King Phillip V and Elizabeth Farnese. She was of the Spanish Bourbons and related to French King Louis XIV. In 1750, she would marry Joseph I of Portugal, and serve as Queen consort until his death in 1777. She would also be regent for her husband during his last illness, then act as an advisor when her daughter, Maria, became Queen of Portugal.

1723 – Frederick V of Denmark and Norway is born in Copenhagen. He would succeed his father, Christian VI at age 23 in 1746. He kept Denmark out of wars during his reign, and was also an active Freemason, and set up the first Lodge in Norway.

1547 – King Francis I of France died at age 52. He was known as a warrior or knight king, because he was personally involved in fighting with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England. He is also credited with being a major influence in the French Renaissance, and was even a patron of Leonardo DaVinci. He also sponsored exploration of the New World. He was also the first European monarch to form an alliance with the Ottoman Empire, and even sent an ambassador to Morocco.

1621 – Phillip III of Spain dies at 42 in Madrid. History has not been kind to Phillip, who has been described as a “miserable monarch” and a weak king who left governing to his ministers. He was also King during the Thirty Years War. Among his children he can number Phillip IV of Spain, a Holy Roman Empress, and a Queen consort of France.

1671 – Anne Hyde, Duchess of York and Albany died in London at age 34 of probable breast cancer. She was the first wife of the future James II and VII, before his accession. Later, her daughters with James would become both Queen Mary II and Queen Anne of the United Kingdom.

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