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1320 – Scotland reaffirms its independence with a document called the Declaration of Arbroath, named for the Abbey in which it was probably written. It was sealed by 51 nobles and magnates of the land. One copy survives today.

1385 – The Portuguese Council of the Kingdom meets in Coimbra and declares John, Master of Aviz, King of Portugal. He was the illegitimate son of Peter I, but there had been civil war before him, as his sister, Beatrice was married to John I of Castile, and thus with their accession, Portugal would have been annexed by Castile.

1632 – Maria Leopoldine of Austria is born in Innsbruck. She was he daughter of and Archduke of Austria, thus making her and Archduchess. She would marry Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor in 1648, and thus be Empress consort. They were first cousins. A year later, Maria would die after a difficult labour with the couples only child. She was 17 years old.

1871 – A baby boy is born to the future Edward VII and Alexandra of the United Kingdom. He would be christened as Alexander John, but would die within 24 hours of his birth.

1199 – King Richard I of England dies in France of injuries while laying siege to a castle. He had been King of England for 10 years, but spent most of the time on the Third Crusade or protecting his vast lands in southern France. He was the son of first Plantagenet king, Henry II, and the equally indomitable Eleanor of Aquitaine. His legacy lives on in the Royal Arms of England, which still bear his standard, three gold lions. He is also the only English king better known by his nickname , the Lionheart, rather than his number.

1490 – Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, and Duke of Austria, dies in Vienna at age 47. He had been king of Hungary since age 14 and acquired the other titles in time. He was one of the first rulers to fully embrace the Italian Renaissance, and fashioned himself a philosopher king after Plato’s Republic. However his empire would not last after him, as he had only one illegitimate son, and he was not accepted as ruler in most lands.

2005 – Prince Rainier III of Monaco dies at age 81. He had been sick for some time, and suffered from multiple illnesses. He came to the throne in 1949 after the death of his father, Louis II. He famously married American movie star, Grace Kelly in 1956 and they had three children, including the current ruler, Albert II. But more than that, he expanded Monaco’s economy from more than just gambling revenues, which were 95% of the country’s revenue at his accession, and less than 5% at his death.

Have an awesome day!!