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Birthdays:
1320 – The future Peter I of Portugal is born in Coimbra. He was the third son of Afonso IV and Beatrice of Castile. He was their third son, but the only to survive. He would become king in 1357, a year after revolting against his father. His reign was relatively peaceful, with the exception of having the murderers of his lover, killed after his accession. He would only reign for 10 years though, and would die at age 46.

1605 – Phillip IV of Spain is born to King Phillip III and Queen Margaret. He became king of Spain in 1621, and ruled until his death in 1665. He would also be king in Portugal from 1621 until 1640. Phillip would also be king during the tumultuous Thirty Years War. His legacy is mixed, as he is credited with Spain’s decline as an empire, but is praised for his patronage and support of the arts.

1818 – Christian IX of Denmark is born in Schleswig, Denmark. In 1863 he became King of Denmark after he was chosen to succeed Frederick VII, who was childless. Early on in his reign, he fought an unsuccessful war against the Prussians for his native land of Schleswig and Holstein. He later became known as the “Father in law of Europe” because of the advantageous marriages he arranged for his daughters. His eldest son would rule after him as Frederick VIII, his younger son would become George I of Greece. His daughters would become Queen consort of Britain, Empress consort of Russia, and Crown Princess of Hanover.

1875 – King Albert I of Belgians would be born in Brussels to Prince Phillipe and Princess Marie. He would become the Belgian heir after some unexpected deaths, and he would succeed his uncle, Leopold II in 1909, and would rule until 1934. He was ruler during the German occupation of World War I and was praised for he and his families war efforts. He served on the front lines, as did his son, who enlisted as a Private in the army, and his wife worked as a nurse. After the war, he would be the first reigning European monarch to visit the United States.

Deaths:
1364 – King John II of France dies at age 44 in London, England. He had been captured in 1356 at the Battle of Poitiers. His son and heir, Charles served as regent and signed the Treaty of Bretigny which agreed that John would be ransomed for a hefty amount, and until the ransom was raised, the English would hold his other son, Louis in captivity. In 1363, John would return to English captivity after he found out his son had escaped. His body was returned to France and buried in Paris.

1612 – Anne Catherine of Brandenburg died in Copenhagen. She was the Queen consort of Denmark and Norway as the first wife of Christian IV. She was only 36 years old when she died but not much is known about her as a Queen, other than she traveled extensively with the King, but did not seem to wield much influence. Her son, Frederick, would later be Frederick III after his father’s death.

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