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Events:
1413 – A 27 year old Henry V is crowned as King of England at Westminster Abbey. He was the second king of the House of Lancaster and would renew the Plantagenet claim on the French throne, and restart the Hundred Years War.

1440 – Christopher of Bavaria is appointed as King of Denmark after his uncle, Eric was deposed. The following year he was elected King of Sweden, then finally in 1442, King of Norway. He would rule all three until his death in 1448.

1533 – A delegation led by the Duke of Norfolk, acting on behalf of King Henry VIII, went to Catherine of Aragon, Henry’s first wife. Henry had cast Catherine off and sent her from court some time ago, but earlier in the year, Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn. Anne was already pregnant. They would inform Catherine that she was no longer to be addressed as Queen, but as Dowager Princess of Wales, her title as Arthur Tudor’s widow. Arthur was Henry’s elder brother and Catherine’s first husband who died just months into the marriage.

Birthdays:
1649 – An illegitimate son is born to King Charles II and one of his mistresses, Lucy Walter. He would be called James Scott, and was later made Duke of Monmouth. He spent his early years in the military, but after his father’s death, he attempted to start a rebellion. James declared himself as king, instead of his Catholic uncle, James II and VII of England and Scotland. The young James was executed in 1685 for his rebellion, but the elder James was famously overthrown in the Glorious Revolution.

1835 – The future King Leopold II of Belgium is born in Brussels. He became King in 1865 after the death of his father, Leopold I. He wanted to expand Belgian land holdings, so he ended up purchasing a large swath of land in Africa, then called the Congo Free State. Sadly he plundered the land of natural resources, and is indirectly responsible for the death of millions of Congolese natives. A year before his death, he forced to relinquish Congo as a personal landholding to the state of Belgium as a colony.

Deaths:
1483 – King Edward IV of England dies at age 40 in Westminster, London. His exact cause of death is unknown, but could have been pneumonia, typhoid, poisoning, and complications from an unhealthy lifestyle. He initially became king in 1461, after a series of battles which have become part of the War of the Roses. He ruled until 1470, and was then overthrown by the Lancastrian Henry VI. Edward was restored to the throne the following year. He was a popular king and loved by the people for his successes in the military field, despite his political mistakes.

1484 – Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales died at age 10. Edward was the only legitimate child of Richard III and Queen Anne Neville. He probably died of tuberculosis but was a sickly child. He was buried in an unknown location at his father’s request.

1806 – William V, Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic died in German exile. He had been exiled since 1795 and ruled the Netherlands from abroad, mostly London. After the fall of the Bonaparte family, his son, also named William was restored as the first monarch from the House of Orange, King William I of the Netherlands.

1961 – Exiled King Zog I of Albania dies in France of a long illness. He had first been Prime Minister from 1922 to 1924, then President from 1925 to 1928, when he instituted a police state. In 1928 he was declared King as a constitutional monarch. He would be king until 1939, and survive 55 assassination attempts during that time. In 1939 he was overthrown by the invading army of Mussolini, who declared Albania a protectorate under Italian king Victor Emmanuel III.

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