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1606 – James I and VI signs the royal charter to establish the Virginia Company of London. The company’s main purpose would be colonizing North America.

1864 – Austrian Archduke Maximilian of the House of Habsburg is proclaimed as the Emperor of Mexico during the French Intervention of Mexico. However his reign was not supported by most of the Mexican people and within three years his rule ended.

1959 – The future Japanese Emperor Akihito marries Michiko Shoda, the current Empress consort.

1512 – The future James V of Scotland is born to King James IV and Queen Margaret. Through his mother, James was the grandson of Henry VII of England and nephew of Henry VIII. He would be crowned King at 17 months old after his father’s premature death. He would rule through a series of regents until 1528. He would marry twice, but only have children through his second wife, Marie of Guise. Their only surviving child would be a daughter, whom history knows as Mary, Queen of Scots. James would pass away just days after his daughter’s birth.

1783 – Hortense de Beauharnais is born in Paris to Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais and his wife, Josephine. Her father would die during the French Revolution, but her mother survived and eventually married Napoleon Bonaparte. Upon her mother becoming Empress consort, she married Louis Bonaparte, her stepfather’s brother, in 1802. In 1806, the couple was appointed King and Queen of the Netherlands and would rule until 1810 when Louis’ kingship was stripped from him. Hortense’s youngest son would eventually go on to be Emperor Napoleon III of France.

2007 – In not so dead royalty, a girl is born to the then Dutch Crown Prince, now King, Willem-Alexander and Princess Maxima, named Ariane. She is currently third in the line of succession behind her two sisters.

1533 – Fredrick I of Denmark and Norway dies at age 61 in Gottorp Castle. He had become king in 1523 after the forced abdication of his nephew, Christian II. He would be the last Catholic monarch of Denmark but was more tolerant than his predecessors. And while he was officially King of Norway, he was never crowned and never went to the country. So when he used his titles, it included ‘Elected King of Norway’. He was succeeded by his son, Christian III.

1904 – The deposed Isabella II of Spain dies in Paris at age 74. She had went into exile in 1868, when the first Spanish Republic was declared. She formally abdicated in 1870. By 1874, the republic collapsed and the monarchy was restored, with her son, Alfonso XII. She had become Queen when she was not quite 3, and ruled through regents until 1843. Her entire reign had been shaky, as there were large parts of the populace that refused to accept a woman as their ruler.

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