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1689 – Prince William of Orange and his wife Princess Mary Stuart are formally crowned as joint sovereigns of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The became rulers after Mary’s father and Williams uncle, James II and VII was overthrown in the bloodless coup known as the Glorious Revolution.

1951 – The Stone of Scone is found on the altar of Arbroath Abbey. The stone was traditionally used in the coronation of the Scottish Monarchs but had been taken by Edward I of England in 1296 and kept in Westminster Abbey. The Stone had been stolen by Scottish Nationalist students.

1358 – The future John I of Portugal is born in Lisbon to King Peter I and his mistress Teresa. He would become King in 1385, after his half brother, Ferdinand I died without a male heir. Ferdinand had a daughter, Beatrice, but she was married to King John of Castile and the fears were that Portugal would be absorbed into that region of Spain. There would be a brief war between Portugal and Castile, but it would die along with the Spanish John in 1390. John of Portugal would rule in peace until his death in 1433.

1492 – Marguerite of Angouleme is born in France as part of the royal Valois family. Her brother would eventually become King of France as Francis I. Marguerite’s second marriage would be to Henry II of Navarre, and their daughter would later become Queen regnant of Navarre as Jeanne III. She is regarded as a major influence of the Renaissance in France and Navarre, and wrote to and patronized many artists and humanists of the time, including Erasmus. Marguerite may have also been one of the first Reformers in France, and may have also influenced Anne Boleyn with her Reformist views while she was in France.

1240 – Llywelyn the Great of Wales dies in a Cistercian abbey in Wales. He had ruled most of Wales for several years. He spent several years fighting with King John of England, but after the latter’s death, he would reach a peace with Henry III, that lasted until after Llywelyn’s death. However, his heir, Dafydd, would immediately be drawn into fighting with Henry.

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