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1111 – Henry V is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in Rome. He had been King of Italy since 1098, and King of Germany since 1099. He succeeded his father, Henry IV.

1598 – Henry IV of France and Navarre issues the Edict of Nantes, which granted religious toleration to French Protestants, despite the country’s largely Catholic population. The aim was to end the French Wars of Religion, but it reaffirmed Catholicism as the religion in France. The edict remained in effect until 1685, when Henry’s grandson, Louis XIV revoked it.

1519 – Catherine de Medici is born in Florence, into the powerful banking family. She was also the niece of Pope Leo X. In 1533, she would marry the future Henry II of France, and they would have three sons that went on to be Kings of France as Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III. Catherine would be regent for all three, on account of her husbands early death. Her daughter Margaret would marry Henry of Navarre, who would also come to rule France. Catherine was a formidable woman, both clever and ruthless. She was one of the most powerful women in Europe during her time. Her policies would keep her sons in power, but would not daunt the religious upheavals going on in France at the time, culminating with the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572.

1573 – Christina of Holstein-Gottorp is born in Germany to the Duke and Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp. She would marry the future Charles IX of Sweden in 1592 and became Queen in 1604. She was said to be tough and domineering, and while she had influence at court, she did not hold much sway over her husband. Charles died in 1611, and Christina spent some time as regent for her eldest son and future King, the famous military leader, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.

1747 – Louis Phillipe, Duke of Orleans is born in Saint Cloud, France as part of a cadet branch of the Bourbon family. He was a cousin to the doomed Louis XVI. Louis was a keen supporter of the Revolution, but did not survive the Reign of Terror and was guillotined. His son, Louis-Phillipe, would actually go on to become King in 1830 after the July Revolution and the final overthrow of the Bourbon family. The younger Phillippe would not be France’s last monarch, but he would be its last king.

No major deaths.

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