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1471 – The Battle of Barnet takes place north of London between the Yorkist forces loyal to Edward IV, who had been deposed the previous year, and the Lancastrian forces fighting under Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, who were looking to keep Henry VI in power. Henry had already been deposed in favour of Edward once. Warwick had initially helped Edward claim the crown, but he was disillusioned with Edward’s rule, and helped dethrone him. The Yorkists would be successful in battle, as Warwick would not survive. Edward would take power again and rule until his death.

1931 – Alfonso XIII of Spain was deposed in favor of the Second Spanish Republic. However, he would not officially abdicate until 1941. His father had actually died shortly before his birth, so Alfonso had been King since birth in 1886. His great-grandson is the current Spanish King, Felipe VI.

1578 – The future Phillip III of Spain is born today in Madrid. He was the son of Phillip II and Anne of Austria. Unfortunately history has a negative opinion of him, with some calling him “undistinguished and insignificant” and that his “only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice.” During his reign though, we saw the entrance of Spain into the Thirty Years War, and he is blamed for the decline of the Spanish Empire.

1818 – Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg is born in Germany to the Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen. She would go on to marry into the Hanoverian royal family in 1843, when she married the Crown Prince and future King of Hanover, George V. In 1866, they were deposed and expelled from their kingdom for being on the side of the Austrians during the Austrian-Prussian War. The royal family would live out their days in Austria.

1857 – Princess Beatrice is born in Britain to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She would be their youngest child. Victoria would keep her close throughout her life, and didn’t plan for her to marry. Beatrice did finally marry Prince Henry of Battenburg in 1885, on the condition that they live with Victoria, so she can continue as her mother’s unofficial secretary. Prince Henry would pass away after just ten years of marriage and Beatrice would remain with her mother until her death. Beatrice’s eldest daughter, Victoria Eugenie would marry into the Spanish royal family. King Felipe VI of Spain is Beatrice’s great-great-grandson.

1578 – James Hepburn, Duke of Orkney, Earl of Bothwell, and one time husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, dies in captivity in Denmark. He had fled there from Scotland after his wife was overthrown. The entire marriage had been scandalous, as Bothwell was accused of being involved in the murder of Mary’s second husband, Lord Darnley. He married Mary in 1567, but its argued as to how complicit Mary was in the situation, and its debated whether he may have raped her, to force her to into matrimony with him.

Have an awesome day!!