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1689 – A year after his deposition in the Glorious Revolution, James II and VII launches an invasion of Ireland in attempt to reclaim his throne. He would be unsuccessful.

1808 – The future Napoleon III of France is born in Paris. He was the son of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and Hortense de Beauharnais, and thus the nephew of Napoleon I. In 1848, he would be elected as President of the French Republic, and in 1851, he would stage a coup d’etat and have himself declared Emperor and crowned in 1852. He is then, the first elected President of France, and also its last monarch. He would be deposed in 1870 after an embarrassing loss to the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan. The Emperor lived out his days in English exile.

1884 – Princess Beatrice of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is born in England to Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. And through her father, she was a grandchild of Queen Victoria. She would marry Alfonso de Orleans y Borbon, a cousin of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. They would spend some time in exile from Spain, first because of Beatrice not converting to Catholicism, and then because of her alleged refusal of an affair with King Alfonso.

1929 – Prince Henry of Prussia died of throat cancer at age 66. He was a younger son of Emperor Frederick III and Empress Victoria, and thus a grandson of Queen Victoria. He spent his life in military service, specifically the Imperial Navy. He would also at times, act as a diplomat for his hot-headed brother, German Emperor Wilhelm II. After the dissolution of the monarchy, Prince Henry was allowed to live in Northern Germany, in semi-retirement.

1947 – King Christian X died at age 66. He had been king since 1912, and thus was king during both World War I and II. What made him unique to other continental monarchs during the war, is that he did not leave his country. Christian stayed in Copenhagen, and even during German occupation, he took a daily ride through the streets of the city, making him a symbol for the Danish resistance, and providing hope to the people. From 1918 until 1944, he was also King of Iceland, the island’s only monarch. He was also the elder brother of King Haakon VII of Norway.

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