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Birthdays:
1214 – Louis IX of France was born in Paris. He was the son of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile. He became King in 1226 at age 12, ruling through a regency until about 1234. He would be a big part of the Seventh Crusade in 1248, and was even captured by the Egyptians and held for ransom. He would also go on the Eighth Crusade, in 1270, which ultimately claimed his life. He was later canonized by the church, and is the only French king to be a Saint.

1228 – Conrad IV of Germany is born in Italy. He was the only surviving son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and Queen of Jerusalem Isabella II. His mother died at birth, making him King of Jerusalem as a newborn. He would become King of Germany in 1237, and King of Sicily in 1250. However, he had several disputes with Pope Innocent IV, who declared him excommunicated in 1254, just a few months before Conrad died of malaria at age 26.

1284 – The future Edward II of England is born in Caernarfon Castle, Wales. He was the first English Prince to be styled as Prince of Wales, which has become the custom for the heir. Edward’s rule has become infamous because of his rumoured homosexual affairs and the military disasters with Scotland, and the eventual rising up the nobility, which his wife, Isabella of France, later joined and helped overthrow him. He abdicated in 1327 in favour of his teenaged son, Edward III, and later dead in Gloucestershire. It is still argued whether he died of natural causes, or was murdered.

1287 – Roger Mortimer, Earl of March was born today. He is known for escaping from the Tower of London, after being imprisoned for rebelling against Edward II, then for being a part of Isabella of France’s overthrow of her husband. More than likely, he was also Isabella’s lover. After Edward III forcibly took the reigns of government from his mother and Mortimer, Roger was hung as a traitor.

1599 – Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon to a gentry family. He is famous for moving up through Parliament, eventually becoming the leader of the Roundhead movement, which ultimately led to the defeat of Charles I in the Civil War, and the King’s execution by beheading. He served as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death in 1658. The Protectorate would not survive his successor though, Richard Cromwell.

1608 – Gaston of France is born to Henry IV and Marie de Medici. He was the brother to Louis XIII as well. One of the things he is famous for is defying his brother and eloping with Marguerite of Lorraine, who was of an enemy house to France. The king would be incensed when he found out, and the marriage would be nullified. However on his deathbed, Louis acquiesced and the couple were allowed to marry. He would live into the reign of his nephew, Louis XIV.

1775 – Carlota Joaquina of Spain was born today to Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma. In 1785 she married the future John IV of Portugal She lived in Brazil with her family for some time during the Napoleonic Wars, but after they returned, she attempted to start a revolt against her husband, with whom her relationship had soured. Her son Pedro would declare himself the first Emperor of Brazil, but later became King of Portugal as well. Her sons Pedro and Miguel, and her granddaughter, Maria, later had a famous dispute over the Portugese throne.

1776 – Princess Mary was born to George III and Queen Charlotte as their eleventh child. She did not marry until she was 40 years old, when she wed Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh. She was the last of George and Charlotte’s children to die, and lived into the reign of her niece, Victoria whom she was close to.

1843 – Princess Alice of the United Kingdom was born today, to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She married the future Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, Louis IV, less than a year after the death of her father. She was a great patron of hospitals in both England and Hesse. Alice sadly died 17 years to the day after the death of her father, and was the first of Victoria’s children to do so. She has two famous daughters as well; the first being the ill-fated Empress Alexandra of Russia, and Russian Grand Empress Elisabeth, who married one of Nicholas II’s brothers, and was also killed during the Russian Revolution.

1897 – Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood is born in Sandringham as the eldest daughter of the future George V and Queen Mary. She was the sister of two kings, Edward VIII and George VI. She spent World War I working with hospitals and funded a group which sent presents to soldiers and sailors during the war. She would be supportive of her brother Edward in his bid to marry Wallis Simpson, and snubbed family members who snubbed him, including her niece, Princess Elizabeth, the current Queen. She lived 15 years into her niece’s reign .

Deaths:
1295 – Sancho IV of Castile died at age 36 in Toledo. He would leave his son, Ferdinand IV, age 9 as king. Sancho’s wife, Maria de Molina would act as regent for the boy. He had become King in 1284 after the death of his father, and elder brother, but would have to spend years fighting his nephew for the crown. His daughter would marry into the Royal family of Aragon, in an attempt to unite the kingdoms of Spain.

1566 – Diane de Poitiers died in France at age 66. She had been the longtime mistress of Henry II of France, and wielded much influence over him to the chagrin of Henry’s wife, Catherine de Medici. After Henry’s sudden death in 1559, she was banished from court and not allowed to attend his funeral. She lived out her days in comfortable retirement.

Have an awesome day!

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