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1980 – Queen Juliana of the Netherlands abdicates the Dutch throne on her birthday, the holiday known as Queen’s Day, in favour of her daughter, Beatrix.

2013 – Queen Beatrix then abdicates on Queen’s Day at age 75. Her son, Willem-Alexander, becomes the first Dutch King in 120 years.

1245 – Phillip III of France is born in Poissy, France, as the son of Louis IX and Margaret of Provence. He became King at age 25 when his father died while they were on the Eighth Crusade. Phillip ruled until 1285, when while on campaign in Italy he died suddenly of dysentery. His son, now Phillip IV, succeeded him.

1662 – The future Queen Mary II of England, Scotland, and Ireland. She was the eldest surviving daughter of James, Duke of York and Anne Hyde, and niece to Charles II. Her father later became King James II and VII and converted to Catholicism. Combine his conversion, later marrying a Catholic and giving birth to a son, this caused uncertainty in Protestant England. Mary’s husband, William of Orange was asked to invade in what has become known as the Glorious Revolution. Mary and William were crowned as joint monarchs. They ruled together until Mary’s death, and then William ruled on his own, with Mary’s sister, Anne, as his successor.

1909 – Born today in The Hague was Queen Juliana of the Netherlands. She was the daughter of Queen Wilhelmina. She took over as ruler after her mother’s abdication in 1948 after Juliana and her children lived in Canadian exile. She abdicated in favor of her daughter in 1980. Juliana even has an asteroid named after her, the 816 Juliana. Her birthday is a national holiday in the Netherlands, called Queen’s Day.

1946 – In not so dead royalty, Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf is born. He succeeded his grandfather, Gustaf VI Adolph in 1973. Also, he presents the Nobel Prizes every year. His daughter, Crown Princess Victoria is his current heir apparent, after the laws were changed to recognize absolute primogeniture in stead of male first.

1632 – Polish King Sigismund III Vasa died at age 65 in Warsaw. Swedish by birth, he was elected to be King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1587, which sparked the War of Polish Succession, where Sigismund was the victor. From 1592 until 1599, he was also the King of Sweden, but could not hold both territories. He ruled Poland until his death. His reign is looked on positively, and with his death, ended the Golden Age of the Commonwealth.

Have an awesome day!