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1328 – The Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton was ratified. The treaty officially ended the First War of Scottish Independence. It recognized Scotland as its own nation, the heirs of Robert the Bruce as rulers, and settled on a border. The treaty was wildly unpopular with the English nobility, and thus made the Dowager Queen Isabella and her lover, Roger Mortimer, more unpopular with it. Sadly peace only lasted 5 years, when Edward III later started the Second War.

1576 – Anna Jagiellon, Queen regnant of Poland marries Transylvanian Prince Stephan Batory. He was crowned as King and co-ruler the same day. They ruled together until 1586, when Stephan died. Their reign was wildly successful, and they are looked on as some of the most popular rulers of Poland.

1707 – The Acts of Union which united England and Scotland took effect, making the two countries, which had shared a monarch since 1603, formally the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The two Parliaments also met today, to convene as one.

1785 – The Kingdom of Hawaii is established under the rule of King Kamehameha I, although the full conquest of the islands would take several more years. The formal Kingdom was declared in 1810.

1218 – Rudolph I is born in Germany to the Habsburg family. Elected King of Germany in 1273, he was one of the early monarchs of the House and helped push them into prominence in Europe. He attempted to consolidate his power by establishing peace among the German regions, but was unsuccessful. His attempts at peace would continue until shortly before his death in 1291 at age 73.

1850 – Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was born today. He was a younger son of Victoria and Albert, and spent his life in Military service, including World War I. He was appointed to be Governor General of Canada for a time too, under his nephew, George V’s rule. He mostly withdrew from public life in 1928, but at the onset of World War II, he engaged with some of the younger military recruits. He died at age 91, in 1942.

1964 – In not so dead royalty, Lady Sarah Chatto is born. She is the only daughter of Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon and Anthony Armstrong-Jones, Earl of Snowdon. She is a niece of Queen Elizabeth II. She is currently 20th in line to the throne, and her two children are 21st and 22nd.

1118 – Matilda of Scotland died at approximately 38. She was the daughter of Malcolm III and Saint Margaret of Scotland, and a descendant of the House of Wessex. She married Henry I of England in 1100, appeasing people in Southern England, who resisted the Normans. She was the mother of the doomed William Adelin, who died in the White Ship accident, and to Matilda, Holy Roman Empress, who later tried to claim England after her father’s death. The elder Matilda is interred at Westminster Abbey.

1308 – Albert I of Germany died at age 52 in Austria. He had become King of the Germans in 1298, not immediately after his father, Rudolph I’s death. He ruled for only 10 years, but spent all the time consolidating the German states. Unlike his father, he was able to secure the succession for his son, but his son died before he could ascend. He would be succeeded as king by Henry VII of Luxembourg.

1539 – Isabella of Portugal, Queen consort of Spain and Holy Roman Empress, died at 35 after the birth of her 6th child. She was the daughter of Manuel II of Spain and Maria of Castile and Aragon. She was the mother of the future Phillip II of Spain, and Holy Roman Empress Maria of Austria. She was as intelligent as she was beautiful, and served as regent for her husband multiple times while he was away fighting. When she died, her husband, Charles V was said to be deeply upset. He never remarried, and dressed in black until he died.

1920 – Princess Margaret of Connaught and Crown Princess of Sweden died suddenly of an infection at age 38. She was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert through their son, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. She married the future Crown Prince of Sweden, Gustaf Adolph in 1905. It was said to be a happy marriage, and Margaret was loved for her charity work for the poor and the war effort during World War I. She is the grandmother of two current monarchs, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and Margrethe II of Denmark, and the deposed Queen consort of Greece, Anne-Marie.

Have a great day!