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1471 – Yhe Battle of Tewkesbury took place in England. It was an important battle between the Lancastrian forces led by Queen Margaret, wife of Henry VI, and the Yorkist forces fighting to restore Edward IV. Edward had overthrown Henry in 1461, but in 1470, Henry was restored to the throne. Edward left for France, but returned and gathered forces. Tewkesbury was ultimately a decisive victory for the Yorkists. Henry was already in the Tower and died shortly after battle. Henry and Margaret’s son, also named Edward, died in the fighting. The Lancastrian cause was crushed for the time being.

1814 – Deposed French Emperor Napoleon I arrives at port in the island of Elba, beginning his first exile.

1814 – Spanish King Ferdinand VII signs the Decrete of May 4th, which restores Spain to an Absolute Monarchy, taking away some of the liberal rights given by the Constitution of 1812, after his restoration.

1008 – Henry I of France is born at Reims, as the eldest son of Robert II. He became king on his own in 1031 and ruled until his death in 1060. One thing he is famous for is helping his nephew in law, William, secure his inheritance as the Duke of Normandy. William is also known as “William the Conqueror” for his invasion of England. He was 52 when he died, and his successor, Phillip I, was only aged 7. Phillip’s mother, the fierce Anna of Kiev, ruled as regent for her son for 6 years.

1913 – Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark is born in Athens. She was the daughter of King Constantine I and Sophia of Prussia. Three of her brothers would be Greek kings, she was also the niece of German Kaiser Wilhelm II, first cousin to Prince Phillip, Duke of Edinburgh, and thus a great-grandchild of Queen Victoria. She lived some in Greece, but moved around because of the depositions of her brothers, but ended up mostly living in England. She married a British soldier, and at her death, she was the last of Queen Victoria’s great-grandchildren.

2009 – In not so dead royalty, Prince Henrik of Denmark is born in Copenhagen to Danish Prince Joachim and Princess Marie. He is a grandson of Margarethe II and is currently ninth in line for the throne.

1471 – Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, son to Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, dies during the Battle of Tewkesbury. He was the hope Lancastrian cause to hold on to the throne after the War of the Roses. He was just 17 years old, and is the only English heir apparent to die in battle to date.

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