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1527 – Troops under the command of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sack the city of Rome. Pope Clement VII is allowed to escape by his guards. This is considered to be the end of the Renaissance.

1536 – King Henry VIII of England orders that all churches must have a bible translated in English, as part of the Reformation of England.

1659 – Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver Cromwell, is removed as Lord Protector of England. The Rump Parliament is installed in his place, which would ultimately end up restoring the monarchy.

1682 – Louis XIV of France officially moved his court from Paris to the Palace of Versailles, which he had been renovating for sometime. It would become the home of the royal family until the break out of the Revolution.

1960 – Princess Margaret, sister of Queen Elizabeth II, married Antony Armstrong-Jones, the newly created Earl of Snowdon. The marriage was happy at first, and they had two children. However the happiness did not last, and they divorced in 1978. It was the first televised royal wedding and pulled in 20 million viewers.

1882 – A son is born to the future German Emperor Wilhelm II, also named Wilhelm. He became Crown Prince of the German Empire in 1882. when his father ascended after the death of his grandfather and great-grandfather in the same year. He lived in exile for a short time with his father, but returned to Germany, and was a supporter of the Nazi party. hoping that Hitler would restore the Monarchy. After the death of some of his friend and when it became apparent that Hitler would not share power, the younger Wilhelm left the public eye for his country estates. His descendants live today.

1910 – King Edward VII of the United Kingdom died at age 68. He was a heavy smoker and had severe bronchitis towards the end of his life. He had been king since 1901 after the death of his mother, Queen Victoria. He is still holds the record for the title of Prince of Wales. Victoria famously excluded him from governmental roles for some time, so while ill-equipped to take the throne. his short reign was peaceful. He ensured that his successor and son, George V was better prepared.

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